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是否有 “锤和记分卡” 操作来操纵计票数?

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美国网络安全与基础设施安全局(CISA)主任将传言称为 “胡说八道”。

【宣称】

2020 年美国总统大选中,一台名为 “Hammer” 的超级计算机和名为 “记分卡” 的软件程序正被用来改变计票数。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

Voting in the 2020 U.S. Election may be over, but the misinformation keeps on ticking. Never stop fact-checking. Follow our post-election coverage here.

In the days after news outlets called the 2020 U.S. presidential election and projected that Joe Biden would be the 46th president of the United States, the internet was flooded with various unfounded claims about voter fraud. One popular rumor concerned something called “Hammer and Scorecard.” While this rumor was wide ranging, it basically held that a “deep state” supercomputer named “Hammer” and a computer program called “Scorecard” were being used to alter vote counts. 

We’ll take a closer look at this rumor in the article below. But before we do, we should note that Christopher Krebs, the director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security — a position he was nominated to in 2018 by U.S. President Donald Trump — has called the “Hammer and Scorecard” rumors “nonsense”:

To be crystal clear on ⬇️, I’m specifically referring to the Hammer and Scorecard nonsense. It’s just that – nonsense. This is not a real thing, don’t fall for it and think 2x before you share. #Protect2020 //t.co/f2FpSbRXKy

— Chris Krebs #Protect2020 (@CISAKrebs) November 7, 2020

Hammer and Scorecard in Action?

The Director of CISA has dismissed the claims about Hammer and Scorecard altering vote counts, and these rumors originate with a man who has a long history of making deceptive claims. Still, social media users quickly found “evidence” that Hammer and Scorecard was real, and that it was truly being used to steal the 2020 election. In November 2020, a video started to circulate on social media that supposedly showed “SCORECARD working in real time.” 

The Conservative Daily Post wrote:

In this video, it’s easy to see SCORECARD working in real time.

Hammer and ScoreCard switched 19,958 votes live on TV from Trump to Biden in the Pennsylvania Presidential Race!

At the 00:04 mark, the video shows Trump 1,690,589 and Biden 1,252,537 … then the video cycles through the other ‘crucial’ states of Wisconsin, Arizona and Michigan.

It returns to Pennsylvania at the 00:40 mark, and pay close attention here.

Trump somehow LOST votes, giving his total at 1,670,631, which is a loss of 19,958 votes! At the same time, Biden picks up that EXACT amount, mysteriously gaining to 1,272,495.

The above-displayed video does show a genuine clip from CNN. However, it is not evidence of wrongdoing. In fact, what this video shows isn’t even very unusual. CNN, like most news networks, uses data from the National Election Pool to provide real-time election results during their coverage. 

NBC News wrote:

The NEP is a consortium of major news networks — ABC, CBS, CNN and NBC — that pools together resources to gather vote and exit poll data. The NEP works with the consumer research firm Edison Research to collect timely and comprehensive election data on Election Day and in the following days, weeks and months until results are certified by all states. The NEP licenses data to several news outlets, including Reuters and The New York Times, among others.

The above-displayed video shows a momentary error in these real-time results. A source from CNN told us that this video showed a brief moment when the results were incorrectly transposed from the NEP and that this human error was caught, flagged, and quickly fixed (as shown in the video). This video is not evidence of a supercomputer hacking into the U.S. election system and altering vote counts. It’s a video showing a momentary error that was quickly fixed thanks to the numerous safeguards in place to protect the integrity of elections. 

CISA Director Kreb’s message about the Hammer and Scorecard rumors bears repeating: “Robust safeguards including canvassing and auditing procedures help ensure the accuracy of official election results,” and that it is not true that a “bad actor could change election results without detection.” 

CISA writes:

Reality: Robust safeguards including canvassing and auditing procedures help ensure the accuracy of official election results.

Rumor: A bad actor could change election results without detection.

Get the Facts: The systems and processes used by election officials to tabulate votes and certify official results are protected by various safeguards that help ensure the accuracy of election results. These safeguards include measures that help ensure tabulation systems function as intended, protect against malicious software, and enable the identification and correction of any irregularities.

Every state has voting system safeguards to ensure each ballot cast in the election can be correctly counted. State procedures often include testing and certification of voting systems, required auditable logs, and software checks, such as logic and accuracy tests, to ensure that ballots are properly counted before election results are made official. With these security measures, election officials can check to determine that devices are running the certified software and functioning properly.

Every state also has laws and processes to verify vote tallies before results are officially certified. State processes include robust chain-of-custody procedures, auditable logs, and canvass processes. The vast majority of votes cast in this election will be cast on paper ballots or using machines that produce a paper audit trail, which allow for tabulation audits to be conducted from the paper record in the event any issues emerge with the voting system software, audit logs, or tabulation. These canvass and certification procedures are also generally conducted in the public eye, as political party representatives and other observers are typically allowed to be present, to add an additional layer of verification.

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