发表者 minici


… 作为一个共和党。


U.S. Election Day is Nov. 3, 2020. Check your state’s vote-by-mail options. Browse our coverage of candidates and the issues. And just keep fact-checking.

It’s not the first time Aria DiMezzo has run to be sheriff of Cheshire County, New Hampshire. But it is the first time she’s made national news for it.

DiMezzo isn’t your typical candidate for sheriff. Her campaign motto is “F— the police.” A transgender woman, she describes herself as a “shemale,” a term considered offensive to many in the transgender community, but one which she considers more efficient for communication purposes (fewer words to say, she reasoned). She also describes herself as a libertarian anarchist and a satanist.

And to top it all off, after 4,000 voters cast ballots for her in the primary on Sept. 8, DiMezzo is running as a Republican, opposing Democratic incumbent Eli Rivera.

The story of the unexpected Republican candidate running for sheriff on a “F— the police” platform went national — then international — after it was picked up by Fox News.

DiMezzo ran for Cheshire County sheriff as a libertarian in 2018, but this year the longtime Republican candidate Earl Nelson didn’t run, offering her the chance to run unopposed as a major-party candidate.

Even if she doesn’t win, DiMezzo said she hopes that her run can be a wake-up call that people need to do their research on the candidates they vote for and not simply vote based on party alignment. In 2018, running as a libertarian, DiMezzo only garnered 747 votes, less than a quarter of the votes she received this year. She said she believes the only reason she got so many more in 2020 was because she had an “R” next to her name.

Running on a major party ticket is a “giant middle finger to the entire system,” she said. “I think that’s what people like about it. They’re fed up with the system.”

DiMezzo said she gets a lot of messages of support, even from people who say they wouldn’t vote for her but respect what she’s doing.

“Even die-hard Christian conservatives say they don’t agree with me, but they say this needed to be done,” she said. “I get people saying they’re going to pray for me, but I don’t consider that hate. I just consider that confusion on their part.”

Mail-in ballots in New Hampshire must be received by Nov. 3, 2020, at 5 p.m. Check Snopes’ state-by-state vote-by-mail guide for more information.

发表者 minici

保护邮寄投票免受欺诈的 6 种方式



This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.

Voter fraud is very rare, whether people vote in person or by mail. That much is clear from a large body of research.

One of us is a political scientist at the University of Washington, and the other is a former elections commissioner who now studies voting laws. We can explain why voter fraud is so rare – especially for mail-in ballots, which have drawn both the interest and concern of many people this year.

The Postal Service coordinates with state and local election departments to flag any ballots that deviate in even minor ways from typical procedure. For instance, a Texas county commissioner was deemed guilty of voter fraud after post office employees found him improperly returning 56 mail-in ballots completed by other voters.

The agency also has its own police force, the U.S. Postal Inspection Service, which investigates potential crimes that relate to the mail.

6. Voter fraud is a serious federal and state crime

For a federal election, each act of voter fraud can be punished by five years in prison and a US$10,000 fine, plus any additional state penalties.

By contrast, all that work put into attempting fraud would net the perpetrator only a single vote in favor of their preferred candidate. As a report from the Brennan Center for Justice succinctly put it, “That single extra vote is simply not worth the price.”

Voters who choose to vote by mail in November can be confident that their own ballot – and those of their neighbors – will be protected from fraud.The Conversation

Charlotte Hill, Ph.D. Candidate in Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley and Jake Grumbach, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Washington

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

发表者 minici

假 “BLM 宣言” 取自意大利法西斯主义文件

BlmMemissto.com 似乎旨在破坏和诋毁反对种族不公正和警察暴行的更广泛运动。


In the early autumn of 2020, social media users critical of the movement for racial justice known as Black Lives Matter (BLM) began posting links to a website, BLMManifesto.com, that claimed to feature the BLM manifesto.

“Everyone should be deeply concerned,” one Facebook user wrote in a group dedicated to opposing Michigan’s Democratic Gov. Gretchen Whitmer. “If you have not read the manifesto of BLM, you need to. This is what our governor is supporting.” Another user replied: “Oh my, it is an eye opening read! To think this [crap] is supported by Democrats. Nov. 3 head to your physical polling place …”

On Aug. 5, 2020, another Facebook user posted a link to the website, adding “If you take the time to read it, the violations of the US Constitution are blatant,” to which someone else replied: “This [manifesto] looks more like it’s coming from the Islamic [Muslim] terrorists trying to impose their sharia law [on] all the Americans…”

BLMManifesto.com features a black, white, and yellow color scheme, with a raised fist symbol — which has been used as a symbol of “unity and solidarity“, the BLM movement, and as a symbol of “Black power” — displayed prominently on the homepage, along with the following description:



The manifesto itself is broken into four sections, each addressing different varieties of “injustice.” Each section comes with an awkwardly phrased heading: “For the political injustice: we demand …”, “for the racial injustice: we demand …” and so on. The manifesto, such as it is, can be read in full here.

Some of its more eye-catching proposals include: abolishing the legislative and judicial branches of government; giving full voting rights and eligibility to hold office to immigrants living in the U.S. illegally; nationalization of all transport industries; reduction of the retirement age to 55 years; nationalization of weapons and ammunitions manufacturing; the seizure and redistribution of taxes, profits from military contracts, and assets owned by religious institutions, as reparations to the descendants of slaves and to indigenous Americans.

Far from being an authentic set of proposals associated with the BLM movement, the text was actually almost entirely taken from the Fascist Manifesto of 1919, and tweaked in order to give the appearance of relating to racial injustice. The following graphics show each section of the fake “BLM Manifesto” side-by-side with the corresponding section from “The Manifesto of the Italian Fasci of Combat,” published in Mussolini’s “Il Popolo d’Italia” newspaper, in June 1919:

It’s not clear who created BLMManifesto.com, or what the motivations were in doing so. The site was first registered in June 2020, and an associated Twitter account was created in July 2020. It has so far published only two tweets. In one, on July 25, the author claimed that the manifesto had been “founded within the CHOP [Capitol Hill Organized Protest] in Seattle.” In the second tweet, on Aug. 1, the author tagged two antifascist groups and encouraged protesters against racial injustice and police brutality in Portland, Oregon, writing:

“In regards to the recent withdrawal of federal agents in [Portland], comrades DO NOT STOP FIGHTING! Continue the fight, keep winning! White supremacy cannot be voted out! An equal society cannot be voted in! We can only make the future we want with our own hands.”

The fact that the website and Twitter account were both created during the summer of 2020, a period of escalating tensions and widespread protests over racial injustice and police brutality, combined with the earnestness of @BLMManifesto’s tweets, suggest that the project is a serious one, intended to damage the wider BLM movement by falsely linking it with policy proposals that are adapted from the manifesto of Mussolini’s fascists. 

However, it’s also possible that BLMManifesto.com is an elaborate act of trolling, a prank, or some kind of experiment. Either way, it’s already being used as ammunition in social media debates over the movement against racial injustice and police brutality, and as part of the broader electoral battle in 2020. 

发表者 minici




This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.

Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg died on Friday, the Supreme Court announced.

Chief Justice John Roberts announced in a statement that “Our nation has lost a jurist of historic stature.”

Ginsburg represented widower Stephen Wiesenfeld in challenging a Social Security Act provision that provided parental benefits only to widows with minor children.

Wiesenfeld’s wife had died in childbirth, so he was denied benefits even though he faced all of the challenges of single parenthood that a mother would have faced. The Supreme Court gave Wiesenfeld and Ginsburg a win in 1975, unanimously ruling that sex-based distinction unconstitutional.

And two years later, Ginsburg successfully represented Leon Goldfarb in his challenge to another sex-based provision of the Social Security Act: Widows automatically received survivor’s benefits on the death of their husbands. But widowers could receive such benefits only if the men could prove that they were financially dependent on their wives’ earnings.

Ginsburg also wrote an influential brief in Craig v. Boren, the 1976 case that established the current standard for evaluating the constitutionality of sex-based laws.

Like Wiesenfeld and Goldfarb, the challengers in the Craig case were men. Their claim seemed trivial: They objected to an Oklahoma law that allowed women to buy low-alcohol beer at age 18 but required men to be 21 to buy the same product.

But this deceptively simple case illustrated the vices of sex stereotypes: Aggressive men (and boys) drink and drive, women (and girls) are demure passengers. And those stereotypes affected everyone’s behavior, including the enforcement decisions of police officers.

Under the standard delineated by the justices in the Boren case, such a law can be justified only if it is substantially related to an important governmental interest.

Among the few laws that satisfied this test was a California law that punished sex with an underage female but not with an underage male as a way to reduce the risk of teen pregnancy.

These are only some of the Supreme Court cases in which Ginsburg played a prominent part as a lawyer. She handled many lower-court cases as well. She had plenty of help along the way, but everyone recognized her as the key strategist.

In the century before Ginsburg won the Reed case, the Supreme Court never met a gender classification that it didn’t like. Since then, sex-based policies usually have been struck down.

I believe President Clinton was absolutely right in comparing Ruth Bader Ginsburg’s efforts to those of Thurgood Marshall, and in appointing her to the Supreme Court.The Conversation

Jonathan Entin, Professor Emeritus of Law and Adjunct Professor of Political Science, Case Western Reserve University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

发表者 minici




美国参议员卡马拉·哈里斯会见了雅各布·布莱克,一位米姆声称,“强奸了一个女人”,并告诉他,她 “为他骄傲” 于 2020 年 9 月。




In September 2020, U.S. Sen. Kamala Harris, D-Calif., visited the family of Jacob Blake, a Black man shot in the back by police on Aug. 23 in Kenosha, Wisconsin. Harris, the Democratic vice presidential candidate, also spoke to Blake himself over the phone as he recovered in hospital from his injuries. Details about their conversation spread on the internet and drew censure as social media users learned Blake had previously been accused of sexual assault.

Snopes readers shared a Facebook post, asking if Harris had indeed told Blake — a man who had committed “rape,” the meme claimed — that she was “proud of him.”

The post read: “Just so women are clear … Kamala Harris went to see a man that raped a woman and told him she’s proud of him!”

Blake was charged with third-degree sexual assault of his ex-girlfriend, but has not been tried or convicted. In July 2020, prosecutors in Kenosha, Wisconsin, successfully applied for an arrest warrant for Blake on charges of third-degree sexual assault, criminal trespass, and disorderly conduct, all of which were additionally designated as acts of domestic abuse. In Wisconsin, third-degree sexual assault is defined as: “Whoever has sexual intercourse with a person without the consent of that person is guilty of a Class G felony.”

According to Crump: “In a moving moment, Jacob Jr. told Sen. Harris that he was proud of her, and the senator told Jacob that she was also proud of him and how he is working through his pain.”

Since this is a secondhand account of the encounter, we have reached out to Harris’ campaign to confirm what she said to Blake and will update this as we receive more information. 

We should note that Harris’ visit to Blake’s family took place after she criticized the police officers’ handling of the situation. In August she told NBC News that there should be a thorough investigation and based on what she saw in the video of the shooting, “the officer should be charged.” Harris added, “in America, we know these cases keep happening. And we have had too many Black men in America who have been the subject of this kind of conduct. And it’s gotta stop.”

Based on Crump’s statement, Harris expressed that she was proud of Blake as he made his recovery. Given that Blake was also previously charged, but not convicted of sexual assault, we rate this claim as a “Mixture.”

发表者 minici

说唱歌手 YNW 梅莉在监狱里被刺死吗?

在 “恶作剧” 新闻网站发布后,说唱歌手的消亡传播在 2019 年 12 月。


说唱歌手 YNW 梅利,真名杰米尔恶魔,于 2019 年 12 月在监狱里被刺死。



In December 2019, readers inquired about several online posts that purported to announce the death of the rapper YNW Melly, whose real name is Jamell Demons. 

On Dec. 9 and Dec. 10, posts emerged on various unreliable websites — including two that invite users to “prank your friends” — falsely claiming that the 20-year-old had been stabbed to death in prison. On Dec. 9, the website Channel 45 News published a short post with the headline “YNW Melly Stabbed to Death,” along with a photograph of Demons and the following text:

“Authorities said that it all happened in a prison riot between to [sic] gangs. Which left the victim found dead with a knife in his abdomen. YNW Melly stabbed to death!”

Channel 45 News invites users to “create a prank and trick your friends” by generating a vaguely authentic-looking fake news post from a headline and text inputted by the user, as shown below:

Another user posted a second fake article using the prank news generator NSFNews. That post had the headline “YNW Melly Stabbed in Jail” and reported that:

“Jamall [sic] Maurice Demons otherwise known as YNW Melly has been stabbed while in jail. Authorities have confirmed Melly to be in critical condition this morning after a stabbing over a gang related incident. Melly encountered two gang members in the Jail who preceded to stab him multiple times. We will update more as the story continues.”

Like Channel 45 News, NSFNews invites users to “Write an article and prank your friends for fun.”

Based on these demonstrably fabricated stories, rumors of Demons’ demise spread quickly on social media and other websites, including DeadDeath and Market News, which shared what they described as “unconfirmed” reports that the rapper had been killed. 

The spread of the rumor was fueled in part by the fact that Demons was indeed in prison in December 2019, adding a modicum of credibility to claims that he had been killed there. In February 2019, Demons was arrested and charged with two counts of first-degree murder and has since been incarcerated in Broward County Jail in Florida, according to prison records.

The rapper’s mother, Jamie Demons, quickly dispelled rumors of her son’s death, posting a short video to Instagram in which she explained: “Melly is fine. I just talked to him this morning. He has not been injured whatsoever. He’s fine, he’s in great spirits, and he’ll be home soon.”

发表者 minici







In August 2015, a meme claiming that a black woman named Amelia Bassano Lanyer was the true (uncredited) author of all of William Shakespeare’s plays began circulating online:

Although the authorship of Shakespeare’s plays remains a topic of some debate among scholars, the above-displayed meme contains several factual errors.

First, Aemilia Bassano (later Emilia Lanier) was indeed a published author, not someone whose work was suppressed because of her race or gender. In fact, the Shakespearean Authorship Trust notes that Bassano became the “first woman to publish a book of original poetry” when her work Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum was put into print in 1611:

Brought up opposite the theatre district in a family of Venetian Jews of Moroccan ancestry, at the age of 7 she was given to be educated by Countess Susan Bertie, in the family headed by Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby. At the age of 13 she became mistress to Lord Hunsdon, the man in charge of the English theatre. When she got pregnant a decade later she was expelled from court and married off to a minstrel. She was one of the first women to own and operate a school and the first woman to publish a book of original poetry Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum (1611). She died in poverty.

Second, Bassano was not black. She was born to Baptista Bassano (a Venice musician at the court of Elizabeth I) and Margaret Johnson in 1569, and biographies of her note that she “was part of a family of Italian court musicians of Moroccan/Semitic ancestry who lived as clandestine Jews.”

No contemporaneous accounts describe Bassano as “black” (or “African”), and although its provenance is uncertain, many historians believe that this miniature portrait by Nicholas Hilliard depicts Amelia Bassano:

Amelia Bassano may have been dark-complected, however. A 2009 paper published in the Oxfordian, the journal of Shakespearean authorship studies, stated that some of Bassano’s relatives were referred to as “black” when they arrived in London, likely due to their dark complexions:

Brought to London from Venice in 1538/9, the dark-skinned Bassanos, some of whom were described in contemporary records as ‘black’ and who may have been of Moroccan as well as Jewish ancestry, became established as the Court recorder troupe.”

Lastly, the claim that Amelia Bassano wrote all of William Shakespeare’s plays is a decidedly fringe notion, even within the world of Shakespearean authorship controversies. While she is listed as a potential candidate by the Shakespearean Authorship Trust (a group seemingly determined to credit Shakespeare’s work to anyone but Shakespeare himself), even among that group she is included as just one of 66 candidates identified so far:

She has long been identified as the ‘dark lady’ of the Sonnets. Her candidacy was announced in March 2007 in a lecture at the Smithsonian Institution as part of the Washington Shakespeare Festival by John Hudson, artistic director of the Dark Lady Players, a New York company who perform the underlying Jewish allegories in the plays. A 5000 word major article on her appears in the Summer/Fall 2009 special issue of The Oxfordian dedicated to the top authorship candidates.

发表者 minici














原本用于美玉的“玫瑰”,何以成了蔷薇科花卉的芳名?据晚唐李匡文[4]《资暇集·梅槐》考证:“丛有似蔷薇而异其花,叶稍大者”,时人称之为“枚櫰”,应当是“梅槐”,以其“叶形处梅、槐之间”;其取名为玫瑰,“岂百花中独珍是耶?取象于玫瑰耶?[5] 看来,对于玫瑰花之得名,李匡文不太确定:难道玫瑰花是“百花中独珍”?这可是对玫瑰的激赏。













王世懋提到玫瑰花在园林多种,作为观赏花卉,玫瑰有粉红单瓣、白花单瓣,紫花重瓣、白花重瓣等若干品种。[8] 此花之于群芳,是否就真如美玉一样名贵呢?


在五代时的花卉排行榜《花经》中,玫瑰仅位列“七品三命”。对于这样的排序,北宋陶穀“时服其允当”[9] 可见在宋代,玫瑰并非多么名贵的花卉。
































第五十六回“敏探春兴利除宿弊  时宝钗小惠全大体”,探春叹息大观园中像蘅芜苑、怡红院这样大的地方竟没有出利息之物,李纨笑答:





小说中其他几次提到玫瑰,多与玫瑰制成的食物有关。首先是第三十四回“情中情因情感妹妹  错里错以错劝哥哥”,说贾宝玉遭父亲痛打,口渴想吃酸梅汤,袭人劝了半天才没吃,“只拿那糖腌的玫瑰卤子和了吃了半碗,又嫌吃絮了,不香甜。”王夫人听了,立即想到玫瑰露,忙命彩云去取:





明 陈淳 玫瑰图  款识:色与香同赋,江卿种亦稀,邻家走儿女,错认是蔷薇。道复。


正是这瓶金贵的玫瑰露,牵出一连串的好戏。第六十回“茉莉粉替去蔷薇硝 玫瑰露引来茯苓霜”,芳官问宝玉要来玫瑰露赠予柳家的五儿,因所剩不多,遂连瓶子也给了她,成为日后被诬陷偷窃的证据。











白玫瑰 Numata Kashu (1838-1901)


五儿一路谨小慎微来到怡红院,忐忑不安地站在玫瑰花前,当她踮起脚尖远远地朝里望的时候,她是否在幻想未来某一天能够光明正大走进这座院子、与众姐妹成为一家人?这个愿望还未实现,素有弱疾的五儿就短命而亡。[15] 回头再看她站在玫瑰花前望眼欲穿的样子,更叫人心生怜惜。


除了以上几出记载,《红楼梦》还以玫瑰花来比喻尤三姐和贾探春。第六十五回“贾二舍偷娶尤二姨  尤三姐思嫁柳二郎”,贾琏说尤三姐“是块肥羊肉,只是烫得慌;玫瑰花儿可爱,刺太扎手。”同样是这一回,兴儿向尤氏姊妹介绍探春,称其浑名是“玫瑰花”:“玫瑰花又红又香,无人不爱的,只是有刺戳手。”





[1] 西汉司马相如《子虚赋》描述云梦泽:“其石则赤玉玫瑰,琳珉昆吾,瑊玏玄厉,耎石碔砆。”西汉史游所撰字书《急就篇》:“璧碧珠玑玫瑰瓮。”颜师古注:“玫瑰,美玉名也。或曰珠之尤精者曰玫瑰。”


[3] 唐代文学作品写到玫瑰的还有:舒元舆《牡丹赋》“玫瑰羞死,芍药自失”,温庭筠《舞曲歌辞·屈柘词》“杨柳萦桥绿,玫瑰拂地红”,唐彦谦《玫瑰》“不知何事意,深浅两般红”。

[4] 李匡文,字济翁,宰相李夷简之子,约生于唐宪宗元和初年(806),八九十岁卒。唐文宗开成末任洛阳主簿兼图谱官,唐宣宗大中、唐懿宗咸通年间曾任房州刺史,唐僖宗、唐昭宗时先后任太子宾客、贺州刺史、宗正少卿、宗正卿。著述凡十二种。以上见张固也《〈资暇集〉作者李匡文的仕履与著述》,《文献》2000年第4期,第105页。《四库全书总目》等作“李匡乂”,清代目录学家周中孚《郑堂读书记》考订后纠正其误。

[5] (唐)李匡文撰,吴企明点校:《资暇集》,中华书局,2012年,第164-165页。

[6] “国香”语出《左传·宣公三年》“以兰有国香,人服媚之如是”,借指兰花。唐宋之问《过史正议宅》:“国香兰已歇,里树橘犹新。”宋黄庭坚《书幽芳亭》:“兰之香盖一国,则曰国香。”

[7] 转引自(清)汪灏等著:《广群芳谱》,上海书店,1985年,第1017页。王世懋乃明代著名文史学家王世贞之弟,善诗文,著述颇丰,才气名声亚于其兄。其《学圃余疏》乃晚年闲居养病时所作,分为花疏、果疏、蔬疏、瓜疏、豆疏、竹疏,自序落款时间为万历丁亥(1587)。

[8] 唐代诗人李珣《花间集》:“红豆蔻,紫玫瑰。谢娘家傍越王台。”可见唐代已有紫花品种。


[10] (清)陈淏子辑,伊钦恒校注:《花镜》,农业出版社,1962年,第256页。

[11] (清)徐珂编撰:《清稗类钞》,中华书局,1981年,第5930页。

[12] 转引自《广群芳谱》,第1018页。

[13] “黄封”乃宋代官酿,以黄纸或黄罗绢封口而得名,后与“红友”皆为酒之别称。

[14] 以上平阴县志等文献参考自卢昱《平阴玫瑰:“恰如红豆寄相思”》,《大众日报》,2019年11月2日。

[15] 《脂砚斋重评石头记》(庚辰本)第七十七回“俏丫鬟抱屈夭风流  美优伶斩情归水月”借王夫人之口指出五儿已死:“你还强嘴。我且问你,前年我们往皇陵上去,是谁调唆宝玉要柳家的丫头五儿了?幸而那丫头短命死了。不然进来了,你们又连伙聚党遭害这园子呢。”程乙本《红楼梦》将此话删去,通过篡改原文,将五儿写活了。

作者简介:江汉汤汤,企业职员 / 中国美术馆志愿者讲解员 / 自由撰稿人,个人公众号“古典植物园”,现居北京。


本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici

特朗普运动将诺贝尔和平奖提名称为 “大事”,历史不同

我们研究了一个人被提名获得诺贝尔(不是 “贵族”)和平奖的标准。原来,酒吧是相当低的。


In September 2020, two members of parliament, in Sweden and Norway respectively, said they had nominated the U.S. government and President Donald Trump for the Nobel Peace Prize for 2021. Trump, his reelection campaign, and his supporters, cited the nominations as major accomplishments and points of pride. However, the rules and history of the nomination process suggest that simply having one’s name put forward for a Nobel Peace Prize is not necessarily the honor or achievement that Trump and his backers have claimed.

On Sept. 9, 2020, Christian Tybring-Gjedde, a member of the Stortinget (Norway’s national legislative assembly) from the right-wing Fremskrittspartiet (Progress Party), conducted an interview with Fox News in which he said he had nominated Trump for the Nobel Peace Prize on the basis of a U.S.-brokered agreement, signed in August 2020, to establish full diplomatic relations between Israel and the United Arab Emirates.

On Sept. 11, 2020, Magnus Jacobsson, a Kristdemokraterna (Christian Democrat) member of the Riksdag, Sweden’s national legislative assembly, published a letter in which he proposed that the governments of the United States, Serbia, and Kosovo should jointly be awarded the next Nobel Peace Prize on the basis of a U.S.-brokered agreement to normalize economic relations between the two countries.

I have nominated the US Gov. and the governments of Kosovo and Serbia for the Nobel Peace Prize for their joint work for peace and economic development, through the cooperation agreement signed in the White House. Trade and communications are important building blocks for peace. pic.twitter.com/XuhkLbHZAV

— Magnus Jacobsson (@magnusjacobsson) September 11, 2020

It should also be noted that the Nobel Foundation does not reveal the names of nominees or nominators for 50 years, so formally speaking, we can’t yet say for certain that Tybring-Gjedde and Jacobsson did, in fact, nominate Trump for the prize for 2021. Tybring-Gjedde also claimed to have nominated Trump for the prize in 2018, and 2016 saw unconfirmed reports that an unnamed person had nominated the incoming president for that year’s prize, as well.

In 2018, a senior official from the Norwegian Nobel Committee, the five-member body that makes the ultimate decision as to the recipient of the peace prize, confirmed that two separate nominations for Trump in 2017 and 2018 appeared to have been forged and that the matter was referred to the Oslo police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

‘It’s Pretty Easy To Be Nominated’

According to the Nobel Foundation, the Swedish institution that administers the Nobel Prizes, a person cannot nominate himself/herself for the peace prize, and only living people and active organizations are valid candidates. The following categories of individual are qualified to nominate a person or entity for the peace prize:

  • Current heads of state
  • Members of governments and national assemblies in sovereign states
  • Members of l’Institut de Droit International (of which there are 167)
  • Members of the International Board of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (of which there are 17)
  • University professors, professors emeriti, and associate professors of history, social sciences, law, philosophy, theology, and religion; university rectors and university directors (or their equivalents); directors of peace research institutes and foreign policy institutes
  • People who have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Members of the main board of directors or its equivalent of organizations that have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Current and former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee (proposals by current members of the committee to be submitted no later than at the first meeting of the committee after 1 February)
  • Former advisers to the Norwegian Nobel Committee

Based on data collected by the Inter-Parliamentary Union, more than 46,000 individuals sit in national legislative assemblies throughout the world. Making a rough assumption of an average cabinet size of 20 members (based on existing research), and the 193 United Nations member states, the number of government ministers throughout the world would be around 3,800.

Based on U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics, there are around 170,000 post-secondary instructors in the academic subject areas specified by the Nobel Foundation in the U.S. alone. The worldwide figure is likely a multiple of that. In 2017, the higher education analytics firm Quacquarelli Symonds estimated that the number of universities worldwide was likely to be more than 40,000, so the “directors, rectors, and equivalents” from those institutions can also be added to the pool of nominators.

The total number of individuals eligible to nominate someone else for the Nobel Peace Prize is therefore likely to be greater than half a million, though this is only a rough estimate.

The number of nominations in a typical year is obviously only a small fraction of that figure, but still larger than many readers may have assumed. According to the organizers, 318 candidates were nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2020 (211 of them individuals and 107 entities). The highest number of candidates came in 2016, when 376 individuals and organizations received nominations.

The Nobel prizes were funded and set up in accordance with the will of Alfred Nobel, the Swedish chemist and inventor of dynamite. He intended the peace prize to be awarded to “the person who has done the most or best to advance fellowship among nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and the establishment and promotion of peace congresses.”

However, as a result of the very large pool of potential nominators, representing a wide range of viewpoints and expertise, the list of peace prize nominees is not always composed of worthy individuals. In the past, even some of the 20th century’s most controversial and reviled historical figures have managed to garner nominations, including:

  • Joseph Stalin — Responsible for the deaths of several million Soviet subjects, through political purges, enforced famine and starvation, and mass execution. Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize 1945 and 1948.
  • Benito Mussolini — Brutal Italian fascist dictator. Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by two nominators, in 1935.
  • Josip Broz (“Tito”) — Controversial Yugoslav dictator who was declared “President for Life” towards the end of his nearly three decades of rule. His secret police violently suppressed dissent and opposition to his leadership. Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1963.
  • Rafael Trujillo — Dominican dictator whose 31-year reign, from 1930 to 1961, was characterized by exceptionally brutal and violent crackdowns on perceived dissenters and opponents, as well as the October 1937 Parsley Massacre, in which Trujillo ordered the execution of thousands of Haitians, many of them carried out with machetes. Received seven nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1936.

In 2019, Olav Njolstad, secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, summed up the dynamics of the nomination process, telling the AFP news agency: “There are so many people who have the right to nominate a candidate that it’s not very complicated to be nominated.” Geir Lundestad, Njolstad’s predecessor on the committee, added: “It’s pretty easy to be nominated. It’s much harder to win.”

发表者 minici




U.S. Election Day is Nov. 3, 2020. Check your state’s vote-by-mail options. Browse our coverage of candidates and the issues. And just keep fact-checking.

In mid-September 2020, disobeying Twitter’s rules prohibiting deceptive media, U.S. President Donald Trump shared a doctored video featuring Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden twice within 24 hours. It was yet another example of the president’s apparent disregard for circulating misinformation that may taint public perception.

A camera captured the former vice president playing the 2017 Latin pop song “Despacito” by Luis Fonsi from a cell phone, smiling and bopping his head at a podium during a campaign event in Kissimmee, Florida, on Sept. 15, per C-SPAN video evidence. The pop artist was in attendance and also spoke at the event.

But the edited version of the video shared by Trump replaced the pop song with N.W.A’s 1988 single “Fuck Tha Police” apparently to show Biden as being anti-law enforcement. “What is this all about?” Trump tweeted with the fake video.

China is drooling. They can’t believe this! //t.co/AAmBGgHhyR

— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) September 16, 2020

Per Twitter policies, site administrators may put the label on tweets that were deceptively altered or fabricated, or shared in a deceptive manner. Meanwhile, content that site monitors believe could “impact public safety or cause serious harm” is subject to removal. The policy stated:

We are most likely to take action (either labeling or removal […]) on more significant forms of alteration, such as wholly synthetic audio or video or content that has been doctored (spliced and reordered, slowed down) to change its meaning. […]

We also consider whether the context in which media are shared could result in confusion or misunderstanding or suggests a deliberate intent to deceive people about the nature or origin of the content, for example by falsely claiming that it depicts reality.

The misleading statement about law enforcement was not the first instance of Trump tweeting in ways that breached the above-explained policy by Twitter, whether purposefully or not.

For instance, in June 2020, the president shared a video featuring a Black child being chased by a white, supposedly “racist baby,” followed by clips of them hugging. But the video was fake — edited and doctored with a fake news chyron. Twitter labeled the video, which was no longer viewable as of this writing, as “manipulated media” — just like the doctored clip about Biden.

Just weeks later, the president perpetuated a major COVID-19 misinformation campaign by sharing a video featuring a Texas doctor named Stella Immanuel who claimed without evidence that she treated “hundreds” of COVID-19 patients and that masks weren’t necessary to prevent the virus’ spread. (See our investigation into Immanuel here, and note the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends everyone wear masks when they’re around others during the pandemic.) Social media sites, including Twitter, removed the video after Trump shared it and it had been viewed millions of times.

As for the doctored clips of Biden, in the absence of an interview with the Trump campaign, the president’s specific reasons for sharing the clips were unknown.

Theoretically speaking, however, Darren Linvill, a professor at Clemson University who researches social media disinformation, told The Washington Post in early 2020 that politicians typically share altered videos or misleading fakes (like the Biden clip) to confirm people’s biases.

In other words, the goal of the Biden video shared by Trump was not to convince Democrats to vote Trump but rather to reinforce existing beliefs among the president’s fans, using Linvill’s theory. “The more entrenched we are, the less possible it is to agree with the other side,” he said.

Regarding politicians like Trump who frequently distribute misleading content, Becca Lewis, a researcher at Stanford University who studies media manipulation, also told The Post:

They’re broadcasting to an audience that already believes or feels a certain way about a politician, so, often, when [the truth of the alteration] comes to light, people just don’t care […] They say ‘it could have been true’ or ‘nonetheless, it reflects who the person really is.’ There’s a shared form of apathy in some cases for the fact that it was manipulated at all.

发表者 minici




This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.

From Ronald Reagan in 1984 to Bob Dole in 1996 and even Hillary Clinton in 2016, candidate health has become a common theme across recent U.S. presidential campaigns.

The issue is poised to take on added significance this fall. No matter who wins, the U.S. is set to inaugurate its oldest president by a wide margin.

But disinformation is unlikely to reach everyone equally. Research from 2016 found that people were most likely to engage with disinformation when it supported their preferred candidate, an observation especially true for Trump supporters. If this extends to 2020, these videos might serve mostly to reinforce Trump voters’ beliefs about Biden’s cognitive demise rather than create new doubts within the wider electorate.

Disinformation can also affect campaigns beyond swaying voters. It can influence the agendas of news outlets. If manipulated videos succeed in bringing questions about Biden’s cognitive capabilities into the spotlight, they could detract from the Biden campaign’s core message by pressing the campaign to reassure voters about his mental health. The campaign has had to respond to these questions even before the recent circulation of the manipulated videos.

Altered video arms race

Deepfakes and cheapfakes have the potential to affect how people see and understand the world. The threats, whether to election integrity or international security, are real and have caught the attention of Congress and the Pentagon.

There are several technological efforts aimed at spotting and ultimately blocking altered videos. There has been some progress, but it’s a difficult problem. The technology is evolving into an arms race between the fakers and the detectors. For example, after researchers developed a way to identify deepfakes by looking at eye-blinking patterns, the technology adapted.

There are also efforts by the news media to come to grips with altered video in the fact-checking process. The Washington Post has developed a fact-checkers’ guide called Seeing Isn’t Believing, and Duke University’s Reporters’ Lab is developing MediaReview, a system for for fact-checkers to tag manipulated videos to alert search engines and social media platforms.

If the fakers pull ahead of the detectors in this altered video arms race, the 2020 election could come to be seen as the start of an era when people can no longer be certain that what they see is what they can believe.The Conversation

Dustin Carnahan, Assistant Professor of Communication, Michigan State University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

发表者 minici


记录显示,在 2020 年美国总统大选前几周,外国经营的 Facebook 集团凯利·麦克纳尼官方至少有 456 000 名成员。


“How great is our press secretary?” asked a meme posted on July 31, 2020, with more than 2,000 comments and shares.

“Re-elect President Trump, take the House, strengthen our Senate … November is coming. If you are ready to drain the swamp say ‘YES I AM,'” another meme read, also posted on July 31.

A third meme posted on July 30 asked: “Do you stand with Kayleigh McEnany?”

These memes could be browsed in Kayleigh McEnany OFFICIAL, a Facebook group that appeared to be a gathering place for American fans of the White House press secretary. According to Google search results, at one point, its membership numbered well over 450,000.

Kayleigh McEnany OFFICIAL was not an official group for the White House press secretary, nor is there any indication that she or the White House had any involvement with it. We reached out to Facebook to ask for information on the group’s removal, and the company provided the following:

“We removed this Group in August 2020 as part of routine enforcement against spammy and inauthentic behavior because it used a range of deceptive techniques to boost their popularity on our platform. This Group was managed from Macedonia and used compromised accounts to mislead people about its origin, make their content appear more popular that it is and drive them to off-platform domains filled with pay-per click ads and to YT.”

The Facebook account named Miki Jovanovski was one of the admins in the Facebook group. His Facebook account was still active weeks after the group disappeared. A Google cache archive showed Jovanovski announcing in June: “Let’s welcome our new members: THANK YOU ALL!!!” He also posted the same day asking for help with content moderation: “There have been a lot of people who comments against Kayleigh McEnany so because that i need a moderator anyone interested for that ?”

The Facebook account that posted the “Do you stand with Kayleigh McEnany?” meme also bears the name Elisabeth Kim. However, the woman pictured in the profile photo for Elisabeth Kim is wearing a name tag that says “Marti Jordan.”

According to Google cache, Elisabeth Kim posted in July: “We did it! Let’s show her how many more fans she has!,” displaying an image celebrating 200,000 members. According to a Bing archive, the post was liked more than 10,000 times.

Another Facebook account bearing the name Rebecca Scott was seen in late July posting another membership milestone. The personal account for Rebecca Scott featured nine photos all posted January 30, 2020. Two were stock images of flowers, American flag clip art, and what appeared to be an obituary-style pet photo, among others. Eight of the nine images had no likes, comments, or shares.

This post by Rebecca Scott included a special image with a banner explaining a goal to hit one million members by Election Day. It also urged current members to invite their friends, promising: “The bigger the party, the bigger the rewards!” The post did not specify what was meant by “rewards.”

At press time, efforts to reach out to Miki Jovanovski, Elisabeth Kim, and Rebecca Scott via Facebook Messenger yielded no response. All three accounts were still active on Facebook.

发表者 minici

特朗普政府是否扣留 911 美元卫生基金的资金?

COVID-19 大流行使一个现金紧张的纽约市难以承担 911 计划的费用。


特朗普政府从一个程序中扣留资金,涵盖医疗护理的病人和受伤 9/11 第一响应者.




The 19th anniversary of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York City came with news that left many feeling outraged: The Trump administration had reportedly withheld money from a health care fund dedicated to New York City firefighters who had suffered from health problems as a result of their life-saving response to the World Trade Center.

The story came from a New York Daily News scoop dated Sept. 10, 2020, reporting that the U.S. Department of Treasury had withheld an estimated $4 million from the FDNY World Trade Center Health Program. It went viral across the internet as many commemorated the anniversary of the attack.

It’s true that the Trump administration has been withholding money from the program, the result of what appears to be a bureaucratic blunder — namely, the way the Department of Treasury tracks and collects on debts owed to the federal government.

In a letter dated Aug. 20, 2020, sent to U.S. Rep. Pete King, R-N.Y., the treasury department said that nearly $2 million had been withheld between August 2016 and May 2020 because of debts owed by New York City to the federal government.

The letter was sent to King in response to an inquiry by the congressman, asking why funds for the program were being withheld.

The Department of Treasury’s letter to King stated that the department’s Bureau of Fiscal Service is required to “offset federal payments for the collection of delinquent debts owed to the United States.” The Treasury Department’s program to offset such debts uses a Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) to link payees and debtors.

“Some payees — such as New York City — use a single TIN for many of their subdivisions, which can result in a payment for one component of the payee being subject to offset for a debt by another component of the payee,” the letter stated. “That is what happened in this case.”

FDNY Chief Medical Officer Dr. David Prezant, who also directs the affected 9/11 first responders’ health program, told the Daily News that the amount docked from the program over the years was in the range of $4 million, not $2 million:

Prezant said he was docked about half a million dollars each year in 2016 and 2017. Then it crept up to about $630,000 in 2018 and 2019. This year, Treasury has nearly tripled its extractions, diverting $1.447 million through late August, according to Prezant.

Prezant also told the Daily News that he has been trying to get an answer from the federal government and the city for years as to why the money was being withheld, but received no response until King intervened.

The funding issue became urgent with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, because while the city has been fronting the money for the 9/11 program that was withheld by the federal government, New York is now cash-strapped due to the coronavirus, the Daily News reported.

“The money that we don’t get means that physicians, nurses and support staff are not hired. We have not had to lay off anyone, yet, but we are at that brink,” Prezant told the Daily News.

We reached out to Prezant for comment but didn’t hear back in time for publication. We also asked the Department of Treasury what was being done to remedy the situation and didn’t receive an answer in time for publication.

A total of 2,977 people died on Sept. 11, 2001, when hijackers flew jetliners into the World Trade Center’s Twin Towers and the Pentagon. The attack took an especially heavy toll on New York’s firefighters, 343 of whom died after running into the burning skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, trying to rescue people when the buildings collapsed.

After the attacks, many first responders became sick from the exposure that day to toxic substances released into the air by the crumbling buildings, as well as sustained traumatic injuries and mental health scars. Two FDNY firefighters died within a day of each other in December 2019 as a result of illnesses they suffered from responding to the scene of the terrorist attack.

发表者 minici

















画了一会儿,快到中午,就准备回家继续画。又路过醉鱼草,发现它正被好几只蝴蝶环绕。醉鱼草非常能吸引蝴蝶,它的英文名就叫“butterfly bush”,意为蝴蝶灌木。可惜醉蝶花之名另有所属,不然给醉鱼草用还挺合适的。












本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici

特朗普促进推文虚假标记 BIDN 恋童癖者

美国总统唐纳德·特朗普向近 8600 万追随者宣传这一毫无根据的涂抹,以及其背后的匿名陈述。


U.S. President Donald Trump entered alarming new rhetorical territory in the battle for the White House on Sept. 15, 2020, promoting a tweet that labeled his Democratic opponent, Joe Biden, a pedophile. The remarkable attack took place when Trump retweeted an earlier post by @ConservUSA38, which contained the hashtag #PedoBiden, along with a short video of Biden standing close to a woman, placing his hands on her shoulders, and leaning his face into the back of her head:

In recent years, those images have been used by critics of Biden, and supporters of Trump, as purported proof that the former vice president has a history of inappropriately touching strangers — especially women. The video was taken from the February 2015 swearing-in ceremony of Ash Carter as U.S. Secretary of Defense.

The woman shown in the video with Biden is Stephanie Carter, wife of the incoming defense secretary. In 2019, she firmly rejected efforts to present that moment as evidence of impropriety on the part of Biden, whom she said was acting as “a close friend helping someone get through a big day, for which I will always be grateful.” She wrote that:

“By the time then-Vice President Biden had arrived [at the ceremony], he could sense I was uncharacteristically nervous and quickly gave me a hug. After the swearing in, as Ash was giving remarks, he leaned in to tell me, ‘Thank you for letting him do this’ and kept his hands on my shoulders as a means of offering his support.”

No credible evidence exists that Biden has ever even been formally accused of any sexual impropriety with a child. As well containing a baseless smear, the tweet made little sense because the woman shown in the video was clearly an adult, and has herself publicly articulated her gratitude to Biden for what she unambiguously characterized as a welcome gesture of support from a close friend.

None of that prevented Trump from promoting the tweet, and the account behind it, to his nearly 86 million followers. Several hours after Snopes first recorded the president’s promotion of the post, it remained on his Twitter feed, and in that time, the tweet had garnered several thousand additional retweets and likes.

The person behind @ConservUSA38, an account that currently bears the name Conservative Girl, has not made his/her name public, and it was not immediately possible to identify the person. The poster claims to be a woman living in New Hampshire, who has in the past lived in Salem, Massachusetts, and Florida, and a former preschool teacher who is currently a caregiver for their elderly parents. We have not yet been able to verify the authenticity of those biographical details. 

In the past, @ConservUSA38 has used two separate profile photographs, both of which are different from the one currently used. Such activity can sometimes indicate that a Twitter account is inauthentic, but we have not yet found definitive proof of that in this instance.

A review of @ConservUSA38’s Twitter feed shows that the person behind the account posts prolifically on current affairs and trending content, from a conservative point of view, consistently articulating support for Trump and opposition to Biden. The person has also targeted U.S. Rep. Ilhan Omar, D-Minn., falsely claiming that Omar did not have legal immigration status, and calling for her to be deported. Omar is a naturalized U.S. citizen.

In recent days, the person behind @ConservUSA38 has repeatedly posted about the baseless smear that Biden is a pedophile, tweets given a potential audience of tens of millions after Trump promoted one of them. 

The president’s son, Donald Trump Jr., amplified that false conspiracy theory in May 2020, when he posted on Instagram a meme that featured a photograph of Biden with the phrase “See you later, alligator,” along with a photograph of an alligator and the phrase “In a while, pedophile.”

Trump Jr. suggested the meme was meant in jest, but his remarks took an earnest turn when he wrote, “That said, there’s [sic] definitely way too many Creepy Joe videos out there!” He replicated that shift in tone in a later tweet, in which he said he was “joking around,” but then added, “If the media doesn’t want people mocking & making jokes about how creepy Joe is, then maybe he should stop the unwanted touching & keep his hands to himself?” thus adding fuel to the conspiracy theory about which he also claimed to be “joking.”

Unlike Biden, the president has in fact been formally accused of raping a child. In 2016, a woman referred to in California and New York court filings by the pseudonyms “Jane Doe” and “Katie Johnson,” filed lawsuits against Trump and the multi-millionaire investor and convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein, alleging that they both raped her in 1994, when she was 13 years old. 

Trump and his lawyers vigorously denied the allegations, and the woman dropped the lawsuit in November 2016, claiming that she had received death threats.

发表者 minici




This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.

What is driving the wildfires that are ravaging California, Oregon and Washington? President Trump and state officials have offered sharply different views.

Trump asserts that Western states haven’t done enough logging and brush clearance, allowing fuels to build up in forests. “When trees fall down after a short period of time, about 18 months, they become very dry. They become really like a matchstick … you know, there’s no more water pouring through and they become very, very — they just explode,” Trump stated in California on Sept. 14.

In sum, management policies have created tinderboxes in Western forests, and climate change has made it much more likely that those tinderboxes will erupt into destructive fires. A third factor is that development has expanded into once-wild areas, putting more people and property in harm’s way.

Addressing just part of this problem will produce incomplete solutions. Rather, I believe a multipronged strategy is what’s needed. One element is improving forest management to make these lands less primed to burn. The other is reducing carbon emissions and reining in global temperatures – the only way to moderate climate conditions that make fires larger and more likely.

The Conversation

Steven C. Beda, Assistant Professor of History, University of Oregon

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

发表者 minici


大多数举报人投诉涉及格鲁吉亚一家设施,特别是 COVID-19 周围的一般医疗疏忽。


As governments fight the COVID-19 pandemic, Snopes is fighting an “infodemic” of rumors and misinformation, and you can help. Read our coronavirus fact checks. Submit any questionable rumors and “advice” you encounter. Become a Founding Member to help us hire more fact-checkers. And, please, follow the CDC or WHO for guidance on protecting your community from the disease.

A whistleblower filed a scathing complaint in September alleging that immigrants held in custody at a private detention facility in Georgia contracted by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) feared for their lives due to negligent COVID-19 practices by facility staff. The allegations included reports of insects found in food and a large number of hysterectomies performed on detained women.

After the complaint was made public, stories went viral that focused on the portion of the complaint that alleged a high number of women had undergone hysterectomies without their consent. The story sparked outrage and comparisons to Nazi Germany.

However, the bulk of the 27-page whistleblower complaint filed on Sept. 14, 2020, by Project South — a social justice and legal advocacy organization — on behalf of Dawn Wooten, a practical nurse who works at Irwin County Detention Center (ICDC) in Ocilla, Georgia, deals with medical negligence and lack of testing and precautions against COVID-19 spread.

ICE vehemently disputed this allegation. In a statement, Dr. Ada Rivera, medical director of the ICE Health Service Corps, said ICE’s data doesn’t align with the accusation:

The accusations will be fully investigated by an independent office, however, ICE vehemently disputes the implication that detainees are used for experimental medical procedures. ICE’s mission is to protect the homeland and to swiftly and quickly remove people from the country; the health, welfare and safety of ICE detainees is one of the agency’s highest priorities, any assertion or claim to the contrary is false and intentionally misleading.

All female ICE detainees receive routine, age-appropriate gynecological and obstetrical health care, consistent with recognized community guidelines for women’s health services. According to U.S. Immigration and Enforcement (ICE) data, since 2018, only two individuals at Irwin County Detention Center were referred to certified, credentialed medical professionals at gynecological and obstetrical health care facilities for hysterectomies in compliance with National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC) standards. Based on their evaluations, these specialists recommended hysterectomies. These recommendations were reviewed by the facility clinical authority and approved.

The agency said multiple stages to the approval process exist before such a surgery would be performed on an ICE detainee, including approval by a regional clinical director and consent from the patient.

According to the complaint, Wooten said she herself was retaliated against for taking time off from work to quarantine after coming down with what she feared were COVID-19 symptoms. Wooten was demoted from working full-time hours to PRN status, meaning filling in as needed.

We reached out to Project South and the Government Accountability Project, the government watchdog organization representing Wooten, but didn’t hear back in time for publication.

After stories about the complaint went viral, Government Accountability Project took to Twitter to report that a fake account impersonating Wooten had been created. The account has since been suspended.

发表者 minici

特朗普战役的 “支持我们的部队” 广告是否采用俄罗斯喷气机?



2020 年特朗普战役中的 “支援我们的部队” 广告展示了俄罗斯战斗机的图像。




In September 2020, an image supposedly showing a “Support Our Troops” ad that was put out by U.S. President Donald Trump’s presidential campaign started to circulate on social media — along with the claim that it featured Russian fighter jets:

This is a genuine ad that was released by the Trump Make America Great Again Committee, and the planes featured in this political advertisement are indeed Russian jets. 

Politico was first to report on the error, writing:

A digital ad released by a fundraising arm of the Trump campaign on Sept. 11 calling on people to “support our troops” uses a stock photo of Russian-made fighter jets and Russian models dressed as soldiers.

The ad, which was made by the Trump Make America Great Again Committee, features silhouettes of three soldiers walking as a fighter jet flies over them.

According to the Google Transparency Report, this ad ran from Sept. 8 to Sept. 13.

Here’s a comparison of the image used in the Trump campaign ad (top) and a photograph taken by Reuters photographer Gleb Garanich (bottom) of a Mikoyan MiG-29 near a Ukraine airbase in 2016:

This is at least the second time that the Trump campaign has mistakenly used images of Russia’s military in political advertisements. A 2016 Trump campaign ad featured an image of Russian military ribbons. When the campaign was alerted to the mistake, they replaced the ribbon image with an image supposedly showing Trump touching the face of a wounded veteran. That image, too, was misleading, since the “wounded veteran” in that image was not actually a veteran and did not lose his arms in combat.

Ruslan Pukhov, director of the Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies in Moscow, told Politico that the planes in this image were Russian MiG-29s. Politico also got in contact with Arthur Zakirov, the creator of the image, who confirmed that the image featured 3D models of the MiG-29. Zakirov went on to say that this image was a composite of several different elements. The mountains in the background, for instance, come from Greece, and the soldiers in the foreground are taken from various armies. 

Zakirov blamed the Trump campaign’s error on “bad fact-checking” and “inattention” to detail:

“This is a completely recreated scene from various photographs of mine … Everything happened through inattention.”

While the Trump campaign did use Russian planes in an advertisement encouraging United States citizens to “support our troops,” it should be noted that this image is purposefully generic. It is available via Shutterstock along with the description, “military silhouettes of soldiers and airforce against the backdrop of sunset sky.”

A lightened version of these soldier silhouettes also carried a rather nondescript description: “five soldiers of different armies.” Another version of the image shows these planes flying in front of a Syrian flag

The Trump campaign is not the only entity to use this generic Shutterstock image to illustrate information about the United States’ military. British tabloid the Daily Mail, for instance, used this Shutterstock image to illustrate a 2017 article about the American military. 

发表者 minici

Netflix 首席执行官是否因儿童色情制品被逮捕?



Netflix 首席执行官里德·黑斯廷斯因涉嫌拥有儿童色情制品而被捕。



In September 2020, as social media users accused Netflix of promoting pedophilia due to a promotional poster for the award-winning French film “Cuties,” the website TorontoToday.net published an article claiming that Reed Hastings, the streaming service’s CEO, had been arrested on suspicion of possession of child pornography:

This is not a genuine news report. Hastings was not arrested by the FBI, and the accusations circulating on social media that the Netflix CEO was involved in child pornography are baseless and largely driven by pedophilia panic that consumed portions of the internet in 2020. 

Hasting is the CEO of one of the world’s largest streaming services. If he truly had been arrested by the FBI, it would certainly warrant a press release from the FBI, and would undoubtedly make headlines in credible media outlets. However, the only source for this news appears to be random social media posts and an article published to a website with a history of spreading misinformation. 

TorontoToday.net is a relatively new website, but it has already been responsible for at least two viral hoaxes. Shortly after Black Panther actor Chadwick Boseman died from colon cancer, the website published a false report claiming that he had been poisoned. The website was also responsible for the false rumor that Russian President Vladimir Putin’s daughter had died from a COVID-19 vaccine. 

The website deleted its false report about Hasting’s arrest, but an archived version of the page can be found here. It appears that TorontoToday.net originally published this article under the headline “Netflix CEO gets BUSTED with 13,000 files of CHILD PORNOGRAPHY.” Then, the site updated the article to include the word “reports” before the headline, and deleted the original text of the article claiming a threat of legal action from a “billionaire we won’t name.”

Unfortunately, we have received threats of litigation over the original article posted on Toronto Today from a Billionaire that we won’t name.

Upon consideration, we have removed the original article from the website, and from Toronto Today-controlled Facebook and Twitter accounts. It’s not worth the risk.

We apologize for any confusion. However, Toronto Today was NOT the original source for this information, nor is it responsible for the negative fallout that the movie “Cuties” has caused for Netflix.

The updated version of the article has also been deleted. An archived page can be found here

This fake report about the arrest of Netflix CEO Reed Hasting is just the latest in a long series of false rumors concerning pedophilia.

In 2020, pedophilia panic consumed portions of the internet, in large part because these false rumors were being amplified by the growing QAnon conspiracy movement. In the last few months alone, we’ve covered false rumors about furniture stores trafficking children via large cabinets, department stores promoting pedophilia by selling shirts containing images of pizza, and the country of Greece classifying pedophilia as a disability.

While pedophilia and sex trafficking are certainly real issues, the aforementioned stories are false. In fact, the National Human Trafficking Hotline released a statement saying that these pedophilia conspiracy theories were making it more difficult to help people who are actually in danger of being trafficked. 

发表者 minici


越来越奢侈的派对 —— 追求独特的病毒性特技的推动 —— 反映了父母在我们的 “关注经济” 中面临的一些新的奇怪压力。


This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.

Over Labor Day weekend, two expectant parents didn’t get the viral hit they had hoped for. During a gender reveal party in Southern California, a “smoke-generating pyrotechnic device” was supposed to simply reveal a color – pink for a girl, blue for a boy – before a crowd of onlookers. Instead, it sparked a wildfire that has scorched more than 10,000 acres of land. As a sociologist who studies how social media is used to navigate gender, identity and life transitions, I’ve watched gender reveal parties become their own mini-industry over the past decade.

The increasingly extravagant parties – fueled by a quest for unique, viral stunts – reflect some of the new bizarre pressures parents face in our “attention economy.”

Guesswork Gives Way to Certainty

Gendering children prior to birth is a unique phenomenon of the 20th century.

Custom cakes, themed party supplies, confetti cannons, smoke bombs and t-shirts are designed to create the perfect Instagram post. Celebrity and influencer gender reveals are vehicles for brand sponsorships, product placements and media coverage.

The marketplace even adapted to the coronavirus pandemic by offering “It’s a girl” masks, “It’s a boy” hand sanitizers and even gender reveal games that can be played virtually.

Parents, particularly mothers, already face intense scrutiny and cultural expectations of “ideal motherhood,” whether it’s the decision to breastfeed, have a “natural birth” or go back to work. Whether or not to have a gender reveal has become yet another “choice” that expectant parents must make.

Even the decision not to have a gender reveal becomes a form of social media currency. For example, social media influencer Iskra Lawrence announced on Instagram that she would not have a gender reveal – and included sponsored links to a clothing brand in the post.

Gender reveals are sometimes sneered at for reinforcing a gender binary, encouraging wasteful extravagance and creating very real safety hazards.

But distilling a gender reveal party down to the foolish choices of expectant parents ignores the cultural and economic forces that shape these decisions. It allows us to mock individuals for their parenting decisions rather than criticize the attention economy for having incentivized these reveals.

We have the excesses of capitalism to thank for a rapidly changing climate that has worsened fires raging throughout the American West.

Is a fire burning thanks to a gender reveal party fueled by anything different?The Conversation

Jenna Drenten, Associate Professor of Marketing, Loyola University Chicago

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

发表者 minici


美国的总统选举认证过程不寻常和复杂,涉及所有 50 个州和哥伦比亚特区、参议院、众议院、国家档案馆和联邦登记局。


This article by [AUTHOR NAME(S)] is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.

With the U.S. presidential election rapidly approaching at a time of extraordinary political and social disruption, the possibility of an unclear or contested result is coming under scrutiny.

Unlike many other countries, where the president or prime minister is chosen by direct popular vote, in the U.S., a candidate may win the popular vote and still not be elected to the nation’s highest office. The U.S. also differs from most other democracies in that it has no independent electoral commission to certify the final vote count.

In the extraordinary event that no candidate wins in the Electoral College, the House of Representatives meets to elect the next president. This is how John Quincy Adams became president in 1824.

Established almost 250 years ago, this complex process is a foundation of American democracy. Many have questioned whether this antiquated system truly represents the will of the people in modern America.

But for 2020, it remains the process that will decide the presidential race.The Conversation

Amy Dacey, Executive Director of the Sine Institute of Policy and Politics, American University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

发表者 minici

Kroger 是否告诉员工他们可以戴 BLM 面具,但不能戴旗帜面具?



Kroger 禁止其员工佩戴美国国旗面具,但允许他们戴 BLM 面具。



As governments fight the COVID-19 pandemic, Snopes is fighting an “infodemic” of rumors and misinformation, and you can help. Read our coronavirus fact checks. Submit any questionable rumors and “advice” you encounter. Become a Founding Member to help us hire more fact-checkers. And, please, follow the CDC or WHO for guidance on protecting your community from the disease.

On Sept. 5, 2020, a message started circulating on Facebook claiming that grocery chain Kroger had banned its employees from wearing face masks adorned with the American flag, but permitted its employees to wear masks in support of the Black Lives Matter movement:

There is no basis for this claim. This claim appears to have been made up out of whole cloth and placed against a colorful background, which, for some unexplained reason, lends statements unearned credibility. 

Kroger started requiring employees to wear face masks in stores in April 2020 in order to comply with CDC guidelines on how to best slow the spread of COVID-19. Kroger said at the time that they would be supplying masks for its employees. An employee news bulletin from Harris Teeter, a grocery store owned by Kroger, noted that employees could provide their own masks as long as the masks were of a solid color (or a simple pattern) and that they were absent of slogans or third party logos.

We have not come across any news stories about Kroger employees being told not to wear American flag masks. We have, however, come across several stories about Kroger explicitly prohibiting employees from wearing BLM masks. 

In August 2020, there was a small controversy after some Kroger employees at stores in Detroit, Michigan, started wearing BLM shirts to work. According to Fox 2 Detroit, some employees also put on BLM masks. Management at these stores, however, told employees to remove or cover up these items, and a spokesperson for the store said that Kroger’s uniform policy states that clothing “must be clean, professional, and without visible pictures, logos, words or abbreviations.”

Kroger said in a statement:

“Our uniform policy must be clean, professional, and without visible pictures, logos, words or abbreviations including masks (ONLY exception is Local UFCW 876 mask or company provided mask). All associates must wear aprons to show that we are here to serve our customers, communities and each other.”

Kroger release a second statement acknowledging it wanted to “offer a workplace that is uplifting, inclusive, and consistent with Our Values: Integrity, Honesty, Diversity, Inclusion, Safety and Respect” and that it had produced wristbands that employees could wear in order to show their support for Black customers and communities:

“At Kroger, we strive to offer a workplace that is uplifting, inclusive and consistent with Our Values: Integrity, Honesty, Diversity, Inclusion, Safety and Respect. Many associates have expressed a desire to stand together with their communities and show their support through their clothing, facial coverings and accessories. While we are not adjusting our existing dress code, rules or policies, we acknowledge our associates’ feedback and want all to feel supported and heard.

“To offer a more consistent solution, we produced wristbands and made them available to all associates. Working with our partners, including a Black-owned supplier, we produced two wristband options, which were distributed in early July: one that represents our commitment to Standing Together with our Black associates, customers and communities against racism in all forms, and the other to serve as a reminder of Our Values that guide us.”

In other words, Kroger does not allow its employees to wear BLM masks (or any masks containing slogans or logos) as claimed in the viral Facebook post. It’s possible that flag masks would also be prohibited under this policy as well, but Kroger did not ban flag masks while allowing BLM masks. 

It’s possible that the above-displayed Facebook post conflated Kroger with another grocery chain, Food Lion, which was briefly mired in controversy when they prohibited employees from wearing American flag masks. This, again, was not a “ban” on the flag, but an enforcement of the grocery store’s uniform policy, which, like Kroger, prohibited employees from wearing items with “writing, insignia or symbols.” Food Lion later modified its policy to allow flag masks.

In summary, Kroger started requiring employees to wear masks to combat the spread of COVID-19 in April 2020. The company provides masks to employees. For those who choose to wear their own masks, these face coverings have to conform to the company’s uniform policy, which prohibits the display of slogans and logos, such as BLM. It’s possible that this policy would also prevent employees from wearing flag masks, but we’ve yet to come across any reports from employees stating that this is the case. Regardless, it is false to say that Kroger banned flag masks while allowing BLM masks. 

We’ve reached out to Kroger for more information, and will update this article accordingly. 

发表者 minici

斯特吉斯摩托车拉力赛是否对 250 万例冠状病毒负责?

一篇非同行审查的论文在互联网上起飞… 然后来到了批评者。


2020 年斯特吉斯摩托车集会导致 25 万名 COVID-19 冠状病毒病例。




As governments fight the COVID-19 pandemic, Snopes is fighting an “infodemic” of rumors and misinformation, and you can help. Read our coronavirus fact checks. Submit any questionable rumors and “advice” you encounter. Become a Founding Member to help us hire more fact-checkers. And, please, follow the CDC or WHO for guidance on protecting your community from the disease.

In September 2020, social media was abuzz over a report from the IZA Institute of Labor Economics that linked 266,796 COVID-19 coronavirus cases (a figure that was reported as “more than 250,000” in various headlines) to the Sturgis motorcycle rally held in Sturgis, South Dakota:

IZA Institute of Labor Economics truly did publish a paper estimating that the rally was linked to a surge of approximately 250,000 COVID-19 cases (representing a cost of $12.2 billion). However, while the rally likely contributed to a rise in coronavirus cases, the figures stated here are estimates from a non-peer reviewed paper and have not been demonstrated definitively. Furthermore, various statisticians and epidemiologists have indicated the study had some flaws. 

Before we get to the expert opinions on this study, let’s dispel a few quick rumors on social media. This study did not claim, for instance, that 250,000 people tested positive for COVID-19 shortly after attending the rally. The research attempted to quantify how many cases of COVID-19 could potentially be linked to people who attended the rally, traveled to other locations, and then spread the disease among their communities. 

It should also be noted that this is an estimate based on a wide variety of factors, not an actual headcount of COVID-19 patients who attended, or knew someone who attended, the rally. As mentioned above, this study was not peer-reviewed and was prefaced with a piece of text noting that “IZA Discussion Papers often represent preliminary work and are circulated to encourage discussion.”

The IZA paper’s finding that 250,000 COVID-19 cases were linked to the Sturgis rally was based on three key factors: anonymized smartphone data that showed an influx of out-of-state visitors and a sharp increase in foot traffic at “restaurants and bars, hotels, entertainment venues, and retail establishments”; a decrease in stay-at-home activity in the surrounding area; and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data that showed COVID-19 cases increased both in South Dakota where the rally was held, and in areas where Sturgis attendees traveled to in the days after the rally.

While this study may provide a broad estimate on how Sturgis could have impacted the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of epidemiologists and statisticians have taken issue with models used in the study and the report’s findings. 

Joshua Clayton, South Dakota’s state epidemiologist, said that the study’s findings did “not align with what we know” and argued that IZA did not account for other contributing factors, such as the fact that schools reopened around the same time as the rally.

Local news outlet KEVN reported:

“From what we know the results do not align with what we know,” state epidemiologist Joshua Clayton said.

He mentioned that a white paper isn’t peer-reviewed. And pointed out the paper doesn’t note schools in the state also reopened close after the Rally ended, which could have attributed to the surge of cases in South Dakota.

Rex Douglas, the director of the Machine Learning for Social Science Lab (MSSL), Center for Peace and Security Studies, University of California San Diego, and Kevin Griffin, an assistant professor at the Vanderbilt School of Medicine, also took issue with the methodology used in this paper. Griffin, for instance, noted that cases were already on the rise when the rally took place, while Douglas noted that authorities simply don’t have the data to reach such a precise conclusion. 

Douglas wrote:

They want to know if mass-events (protests, conventions, rallies) spread covid. But we don’t have individual level data on attendees and comparable stay-homes. So they resort to a diff-in-diff, looking to see if a place has more, less, or the same number of confirmed cases soon after an event than they ‘should.’ The argument is that the trend line for an entire location after time T can tell us if what happened on T is safe or risky.

For why this research design does not answer that question, imagine running your own experiment. Go outside and cough in a stranger’s face right now. Now if next week your county’s confirmed case rate goes up, that’s bad behavior, stays the same it’s ok, and goes down it’s good!

Jennifer Beam Dowd, the deputy director of the Leverhulme Centre for Demographic Science at the University of Oxford, also took issue with the paper’s conclusion in an article published on Slate. Generally speaking, Dowd argued that the researchers made assumptions that don’t always play out in reality. More specifically, Dowd took issue with how the study confidently presented a precise conclusion (266,796 COVID-cases) despite noisy results. 

The 266,796 number also overstates the precision of the estimates in the paper even if the model is taken at face value. The confidence intervals for the “high inflow” counties seem to include zero (meaning the authors can’t say with statistical confidence that there was any difference in infections across counties due to the rally). No standard errors (measures of the variability around the estimate) are provided for the main regression results, and many of the p-values for key results are not statistically significant at conventional levels. So even if one believes the design and assumptions, the results are very “noisy” and subject to caveats that don’t merit the broadcasting of the highly specific 266,796 figure with confidence, though I imagine that “somewhere between zero and 450,000 infections” would not have been as headline-grabbing.

The claim that 250,000 COVID-19 cases were linked to Sturgis is based on one study’s estimate of how the motorcycle rally could have impacted the pandemic. As several statisticians and epidemiologists have noted, the models used for this study contained flaws, and the report arrived at a conclusion that was more precise than the available data would have allowed. 

发表者 minici

五角大楼 9/11 日托科拉尔






While the urge to take something good from the awfulness that was 11 September 2001 serves as motivation to look to uplifting stories from that day, true accounts of such nature are few and far between. This tale about 40 Marines standing guard over a corral of cribs protecting babies and toddlers rescued from a daycare center near the Pentagon is a bit of fiction:

[Collected via e-mail, September 2008]

I wonder why, no, I know why you never saw this on the mainstream media!

Just came from the memorial ceremony here at NORTHCOM. LTC (CH) Robert Leivers led the group in a ceremony here at the headquarters. During the ceremony, he relayed this little-known story from the Pentagon on 9/11: “During a visit with a fellow chaplain, who happened to be assigned to the Pentagon, I had a chance to hear a first-hand account of an incident that happened right after Flt 77 hit the Pentagon. The Chaplain told me what happened at a daycare center near where the impact occurred.

This daycare had many children, including infants who were in heavy cribs. The daycare supervisor, looking at all the children they needed to evacuate, was in a panic over what they could do; there were many children, mostly toddlers, as well as the infants that would need to be taken out with the cribs. There was no time to try to bundle them into carriers and strollers.

Just then a young Marine came running into the center and asked what they needed. After hearing what the center director was trying to do, he ran back out into the hallway and disappeared. The director thought, ‘well, there we are- on our own.’ About 2 minutes later, that Marine returned with 40 others in tow. Each of them grabbed a crib with a child, and the rest started gathering up toddlers. The director and her staff then helped them take all the children out of the center and down toward the park near the Potomac and the Pentagon.

Once they got about 3/4 of a mile outside the building, the Marines stopped in the park, and then did a fabulous thing – they formed a circle with the cribs, which were quite sturdy and heavy, like the covered wagons in the West. Inside this circle of cribs, they put the toddlers, to keep them from wandering off. Outside this circle were the 40 Marines, forming a perimeter around the children and waiting for instructions. There they remained until the parents could be notified and come get their children.”

The NORTHCOM chaplain then said- “I don’t think any of us saw nor heard of this on any of the news stories of the day. It was an incredible story.”

I must say- there wasn’t a dry eye in the room. The thought of those Marines and what they did and how fast they reacted- could we expect any less from them?? It was one of the most touching stories from the Pentagon I’ve EVER heard.

[Collected via e-mail, February 2013]

On September 11, 2001, a hijacked plane knifed into the side of the Pentagon. We all know that. What very few people have heard is shortly afterwards, the director of a nursery in the building stood looking at the children in her charge, wondering how to move all of the babies and toddlers to safety. A marine rushed into the room and asked if she was alright. She needed help and she told him that. He turned and ran out; the woman assumed that he had gone away for good. As she formulated a plan of action, she heard footsteps in the hall. The man had returned – this time, though, he was not alone. At least forty other Marines followed him. They picked up the babies in their cribs, the toddlers, the helpless infants. They carried them through the halls and to a nearby park, where they arranged the cribs in a circle and set the toddlers in the middle. Then they stood guard outside, never allowing the children to be unattended.

When I first saw this picture, I thought that the man carrying the children was their father. Now I realize that he was not related to them by blood, but by nationality. He is an American. They are American children. He is not their father, he is their protector. He’s a United States Marine.

American Flight 77 crashed into Pentagon at 9:43 a.m. on that fateful day. All was confusion in Washington for at least the next hour, with order only gradually emerging from the chaos as various folks tried to work out what had happened, what help was needed where, and whether further attacks were on the way.

There were daycares near the Pentagon, including one located in a building 30 yards from that facility, fortunately on the opposite side from where the airplane struck. Children from these facilities were evacuated by those running those establishments, with help from other sources arriving only well after the fact. There was no group of 40 burly Marines racing into a distressed daycare center to snatch up toddlers and cribs, then forming a defensive ring around the tykes; instead, in the absence of outside assistance, those in charge of the kids fended as best they could for those in their care. For instance, at the Children’s World Learning Center at the Pentagon, the teachers sang nursery rhymes to their 138 young charges as they led them to safety.

Said Time of the situation that morning:

By 11 a.m., the streets in Washington were gridlocked with people trying to get out.

On the corner of Constitution Avenue and 14th Street, day-care workers from the Ronald Reagan Building clutched frightened toddlers into a tight bunch.

A scouring of news stories from the days immediately following 9/11 through the next few months uncovered no news accounts about a cadre of Marines rescuing children from a daycare center near the Pentagon, or indeed of members of any other branch of service snatching up kids and cribs then making a protective corral of the cribs and standing guard over it. This is not a story that would have gone unreported, because even if the Marines in question had kept their peace about their actions that day, the kids, the daycare workers, and the parents of the kids certainly wouldn’t have.

The tale about 40 Marines charging to the rescue (which began its online life in September 2008), possibly resulted from a mishearing, misunderstanding, or just plain exaggeration of the actions taken that day by Army colonel Dave Komar and his staff and rangers from the National Park Service to assist and protect those who had evacuated children from the Pentagon’s daycare facility. Seven park rangers were dispatched to assist the group of evacuees, reaching it at approximately noon. Once there, the park rangers set up a protective perimeter around the children and blocked one lane of westbound traffic on the George Washington Memorial Parkway to increase safety. They then persuaded the driver of an empty tour bus to help transport the kids to a Virginia Department of Transportation (DoT) facility where they could better watch over and care for the tots until parents came to claim their children.

The park rangers did not magically appear just as the youngsters needed to be moved from the threatened daycare (they joined up with the evacuated group a couple of hours after it reached the open field), nor did they cart heavy cribs full of kids out of a building, nor did they form a ring of cribs “like the covered wagons in the West” and then stand guard outside it to keep the children from getting loose. However, they were involved in protecting a group of children moved from a daycare after the attack, with this protection involving (at least at one point) the establishment of a protective perimeter around their small charges. It’s enough of a similarity to have potentially served as the kernel for the much embellished tale involving 40 Marines and a ring of baby cribs.

The most interesting story having to do with the Pentagon’s daycare facility that day wasn’t primarily about the children or even the evacuation, but one of the parents. That morning, Col. William Stoppel of the National Guard dropped his 9-month-old son at daycare, then continued on to his office in the Pentagon’s inner ring, where he was assigned to the Department of the Army’s G-1 Office processing promotion packets. News of the attacks in New York prompted this dad to want to check on his son, so at the time the plane hit the Pentagon, he was in the daycare facility on the other side of the building (and thus helped to move kids to the field spoken of earlier).

Unknown to him as he helped shepherd kids, Stoppel’s office had been one of those that sustained a direct hit. Many of his co-workers had perished in the attack, including the man with which he had shared a cubicle. Stoppel himself was presumed dead for the better part of the day.

发表者 minici






仰视楝树 by 蒋某人


1. 只怪南风吹紫雪


楝(Melia azedarach L.)是楝科楝属下的落叶乔木,又称苦楝。在《中国植物志》中,楝属有两种,另一种是川楝。而在《Flora of China》中则只保留了楝一种。




干枯的楝实很像话梅 by Roger Culos ①







冬季,满树黄色的楝实,鸟喜欢吃,人不能吃 by 蒋某人







紫色楝花 by 蒋某人、Alpsdake ②




2. 犹堪缠黍吊沉湘






楝花 by 蒋某人


关于楝树还有不少传说。楝实是凤凰和獬豸(xiè zhì,独角神兽)的食物,但是水底的蛟龙却是怕它的,所以《荆楚岁时记》载,夏至时食粽,将楝叶插在粽子上,系之以五彩绳,投入江中可以“辟水厄”,即免于溺水之祸。[4] 想起儿时生活在江边,河湖众多,几乎每年夏天都有小孩因贪玩下水丢了性命,如果是在江里,恐怕连尸首都找不到,所以家里的长辈是严禁我们到河里玩水的。古人特地祈求“辟水厄”,会不会也与此有关?那时,女孩儿们也把楝叶插在头上,在手臂上缠上彩绳,称之为长命缕。




既然蛟龙畏楝,所以民间在祭祀三闾大夫屈原时,也会在粽子上插上楝叶再扔到江中,以免为蛟龙所窃。[5] 上文宋张蕴《楝花》诗的前两句“绿树菲菲紫白香,犹堪缠黍(粽子)吊沉湘”,就用到了这个典故。事实上,楝叶确实有毒,其鲜叶可灭钉螺和作农药[6]。














[1] 《中国植物志》:“楝:子房5-6室;果较小,长通常不超过2厘米,小叶具钝齿;花序常与叶等长。川楝:子房6-8室;果较大,长约3厘米;小叶近全缘或具不明显的钝齿;花序长约为叶的一半。”见//frps.iplant.cn/frps/Melia。

[2] 转引自(清)吴其濬《植物名实图考长编》,中华书局,2018年,第1113页。

[3] 明初王逵《蠡海集·气候类》:“一月二气六候,自小寒至谷雨,凡四月八气二十四候。每候五日,以一花之风信应之,世所异言,曰始于梅花,终于楝花也。详而言之,小寒之一候梅花,二候山茶,三候水仙;大寒之一候瑞香,二候兰花,三候山矾;立春之一候迎春,二候樱桃,三候望春;雨水一候菜花,二候杏花,三候李花;惊蛰一候桃花,二候棣棠,三候蔷薇;春分一候海棠,二候梨花,三候木兰;清明一候桐花,二候麦花,三候柳花,谷雨一候牡丹,二候酴醿,三候楝花。花竟则立夏矣。”清代类书《广群芳谱》引《岁时杂记》亦载,内容基本一致,只是“棣棠”为“棠梨”,最后一句为“楝花竟则立夏”。

[4] (梁)宗懍著,(隋)杜公瞻:《荆楚岁时记》,中华书局,2018年,第52页:“民斩新竹笋为筒粽,楝叶插头,五彩缕投江,以为辟水厄(溺死之灾)。士女或取楝叶插头,彩丝系臂,谓为长命缕。”

[5] 《荆楚岁时记》第52页:“屈原以夏至赴湘流,百姓竞以食祭之。常苦为蛟龙所窃,以五色丝合楝叶缚之。又以为獬豸食楝,将以言其志。”转引自《尔雅翼》卷十八。

[6] 《中国植物志》://frps.iplant.cn/frps?id=楝。

[7] 转引自《植物名实图考长编》,第1112页。按,原文“尤行制叔保”当为“尤待制叔保”,“待制”乃唐置官名,选京官五品以上,更宿中书、门下省,以备咨询政事,宋代因袭。

[8] “尤叔保,字碧岩,宋天禧二年入吴,是为迁吴始祖赠待制公。尤保叔长子尤大成,字有终,赠少师,后迁无锡许舍山,是为尤氏迁锡始祖……”见凌郁之《苏州文化世家与清代文学》,济南:齐鲁书社,2008年,第190页。

[9] 《中国植物志》:“边材黄白色,心材黄色至红褐色,纹理粗而美,质轻软,有光泽,施工易,是家具、建筑、农具、舟车、乐器等良好用材。”见//frps.iplant.cn/frps/Melia%20azedarach。


①By Roger Culos – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=43069125

②By Alpsdake – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=19657008




作者简介:江汉汤汤,企业职员 / 中国美术馆志愿者讲解员 / 自由撰稿人,个人公众号“古典植物园”,现居北京。


本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可





发表者 minici



问荆 Equisetum arvense

图1 Zeynel Cebeci 






草问荆 Equisetum pratense


硅虽然是地壳中含量最高的几种元素之一,但在地球生命体内含量却非常少。而问荆体内的硅含量远远超出了一般水平,从根、茎、叶到孢子的所有器官中都有二氧化硅沉积,因此它也被称为“生物硅化物 biosilicifiers”,在生命科学领域倍受关注。







图1 Zeynel Cebeci [CC BY-SA 4.0]



本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici



【 缫丝花 Rosa roxburghii 】 蔷薇科 >> 蔷薇属



尤其是在贵州,经政府大力推广种植,刺梨带动了百万农民增收致富。[1] 于是在北京世园会的贵州园里,还给刺梨立了几个大雕塑。



我今年去云南时终于见到了野生刺梨,那自然是要尝一尝的。结果,好不容易把果实上长的刺给去掉,刚试探性的咬下去,门牙就磕到了核… 后来一想,这大概是前一年留存至今的果实。







↑重瓣缫丝花,By T.Kiya [2] 

↑花萼,子房上的尖刺暴露了它的身份 ,By Salicyna [3]



[2] By T.Kiya //www.flickr.com/photos/cq-biker/13064312153

[3] By Salicyna //commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rosa_roxburghii_2016-05-31_1482.jpg



本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici


从高原回到北京已经几天了。虽然气温不高,但闷热异常,如果说什么能把我吸引出门,那就只有高山和繁花 —— 北京山上的金莲花应该开的正好吧。

【 金莲花 Trollius chinensis 】毛茛科 >> 金莲花属









↑可能是小金莲花 Trollius pumilus




本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici




火龙果,是仙人掌科量天尺属的植物,平日里常吃的水果,有白心和红心的,买到好吃的则甜而多汁,运气不好便淡而无味。红心的口感更好也更贵,花青素丰富,染色能力超强,吃一个,便可获得独一无二的红心火龙果色号口红,并且有很大的几率see you tomorrow。













本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici



【 荇菜 Nymphoides peltata 】睡菜科 >> 荇菜属



↑ 六月初在南京拍的荇菜,花期已经要结束了

《中国植物志》说:荇菜产全国绝大多数省区。生于池塘或不甚流动的河溪中… 我在草原上发现的荇菜,也都是长在看起来随时会干枯的小水洼里。稍大的“淖”(读“孬”,指湖泊)和溪流中,都看不到荇菜的身影。






荇菜的食用部分是茎和叶,叶片看起来与睡莲有相似。古人还会将荇菜与莼菜弄混,比如《本草纲目》里就这么写:“莕与莼,一类二种也…” 其实,莼菜叶片是一个标准椭圆形,叶片背面和叶柄上还有滑腻粘液,与荇菜很好区分。






[1] //zh.wikisource.org/zh-hans/毛詩陸疏廣要_(四庫全書本)/卷上之上



本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici














但茉莉并非原产我国,唐代学者段公路所著岭南风物志《北户录》在记载指甲花时提到:“恙弭花、白茉莉花(红者不香),皆波斯移植夏中。”[1] 不过茉莉的原产地是今天的印度,它在古籍中又名抹厉、抹利、没利、末丽,皆从梵文mallikā音译而来[2]。早在佛教出现之前,印度人就将茉莉等鲜花用线穿起来,戴在头上或者挂在身上作为装饰,人称 “华鬘[mán]”;佛教兴起后,华鬘用于礼佛,“今泰国、菲律宾等东南亚国家,仍有将茉莉花环供奉于佛像前的习俗”[3]。
































茉莉花采摘 《人民画报》1963年12月


































[2] 《本草纲目·草部卷十四·草之三·茉莉》:“时珍曰∶稽含《草木状》作末利,《洛阳名园记》作抹厉,《佛经》作抹利,《王龟龄集》作没利,《洪迈集》作末丽。盖末利本胡语,无正字,随人会意而已。韦君呼为狎客,张敏叔呼为远客。杨慎《丹铅录》云∶《晋书》都人簪柰花,即今末利花也。”

[3] 刘家兴、刘永连:《“素馨”考辨》,《暨南史学》,第11辑,2015年,第75页。

[4] 吴玉贵,华飞主编:《四库全书精品文存27·南方草木状》,北京:团结出版社,1997年,第3页。

[5] 缪启愉:《<南方草木状>的诸伪迹》,《中国农史》,1984年03期,第12页。据缪启愉先生介绍,《南方草木状》主要参考的古书有《艺文类聚》、《北户录》、唐末刘恂《岭表录异》、《太平御览》、《证类本草》等,也有《尔雅》郭璞注和《法苑珠林》。其利用前述编缀成文的迹象,主要有五种情况:综合、全抄、摘抄、承误、增饰。以上见该文第3页。

[6] (美)劳费尔著,林筠因译:《中国伊朗编》,北京:商务印书馆,2015年,第167页。

[7] (宋)张邦基《墨庄漫录》,中华书局,2002年版,198页。

[8] 《广群芳谱》引《丹铅总录》:“茉莉花见嵇含南方草木状,称其芳香酷烈,此花岭外海滨物,自宣和中名著,艮岳列芳草八,此居一焉,八芳者金蛾、玉蝉、虎耳、凤毛、素馨、渠那、茉莉、含笑也。”

[9] (宋)周密:《武林旧事·禁中纳凉》,北京:光明日报出版社,2016年,第61页。

[10] 《武林旧事·都人避暑》,第62页。

[11]  李平君:《博弈》,北京:中国社会出版社,2009年,第46-47页。

[12] 《武林旧事·酒楼》,第110页:“每处各有私名妓数十辈,皆时妆服,巧笑争妍。夏月茉莉盈头,春满绮陌。凭槛招邀,谓之‘卖客’。”

[13] (清)余怀著,薛冰点校:《板桥杂记》,南京出版社,2006年,第10页。


[15] 汪曾祺曾在散文《夏天》中为栀子花鸣不平:“(栀子花)极香,香气简直有点叫人受不了,我的家乡人说是‘碰鼻子香’。栀子花粗粗大大,又香得掸都掸不开,于是为文雅人不取,以为品格不高。栀子花说:‘去你妈的,我就是要这样香,香得痛痛快快,你们他妈的管得着吗?’”



作者简介:江汉汤汤,企业职员 / 中国美术馆志愿者讲解员 / 自由撰稿人,个人公众号“古典植物园”,现居北京。


本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可





发表者 minici






会结果的主要是这种,开小黄花的 Oxalis corniculata 酢浆草本种。它分布很广,全国都可以见到。
















红花酢浆草 | 即使是冬天,他也零星的开着

修竹花事 | 酢浆草



本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici




【 厚朴 Houpoea officinalis 】木兰科 >> 厚朴属

厚朴,属于木兰科厚朴属。在IUCN(国际自然保护联盟)的评级中,厚朴属于EN级(濒临灭绝);在我国拟定的《国家重点保护野生植物名录》中,属于 II 级保护。




















厚朴也是一种传统药用植物,药用部位为树皮。《说文》:“朴,木皮也。” 厚朴,说的就是它皮厚了。



本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici



尖被百合学名 Lilium lophophorum ,属于百合属钟花组。不同于我们对百合花的一般映像,尖被百合花朵相当小巧,且花型十分奇特。








本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici




【 海州常山 Clerodendrum trichotomum 】 唇形科 >> 大青属 

















本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici







现代植物分类学中,雨久花属于雨久花科雨久花属,学名 Monochoria korsakowii 大名鼎鼎的水葫芦是雨久花科的成员,南方常见的园林植物梭鱼草也是。






© 汪远













[1]林玉, 谭敦炎, LINYu, et al. 被子植物镜像花柱及其进化意义[J]. 植物分类学报, 2007, 45(6):901-916.



本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici



↑枸杞干果实 ① By Didier Descouens 


【 枸杞 Lycium chinense 】茄科 >> 枸杞属

















①干果实 By Didier Descouens – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0



本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可



发表者 minici











落葵学名 Basella alba ,是落葵科落葵属植物。它其实有个更加广为人知的名字,就是木耳菜。











本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可