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2020年9月20日
发表者 minici
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“一个巨大的中指到整个系统”:反无政府主义者撒旦为警长跑步

… 作为一个共和党。

【原文】

U.S. Election Day is Nov. 3, 2020. Check your state’s vote-by-mail options. Browse our coverage of candidates and the issues. And just keep fact-checking.

It’s not the first time Aria DiMezzo has run to be sheriff of Cheshire County, New Hampshire. But it is the first time she’s made national news for it.

DiMezzo isn’t your typical candidate for sheriff. Her campaign motto is “F— the police.” A transgender woman, she describes herself as a “shemale,” a term considered offensive to many in the transgender community, but one which she considers more efficient for communication purposes (fewer words to say, she reasoned). She also describes herself as a libertarian anarchist and a satanist.

And to top it all off, after 4,000 voters cast ballots for her in the primary on Sept. 8, DiMezzo is running as a Republican, opposing Democratic incumbent Eli Rivera.

The story of the unexpected Republican candidate running for sheriff on a “F— the police” platform went national — then international — after it was picked up by Fox News.

DiMezzo ran for Cheshire County sheriff as a libertarian in 2018, but this year the longtime Republican candidate Earl Nelson didn’t run, offering her the chance to run unopposed as a major-party candidate.

Even if she doesn’t win, DiMezzo said she hopes that her run can be a wake-up call that people need to do their research on the candidates they vote for and not simply vote based on party alignment. In 2018, running as a libertarian, DiMezzo only garnered 747 votes, less than a quarter of the votes she received this year. She said she believes the only reason she got so many more in 2020 was because she had an “R” next to her name.

Running on a major party ticket is a “giant middle finger to the entire system,” she said. “I think that’s what people like about it. They’re fed up with the system.”

DiMezzo said she gets a lot of messages of support, even from people who say they wouldn’t vote for her but respect what she’s doing.

“Even die-hard Christian conservatives say they don’t agree with me, but they say this needed to be done,” she said. “I get people saying they’re going to pray for me, but I don’t consider that hate. I just consider that confusion on their part.”

Mail-in ballots in New Hampshire must be received by Nov. 3, 2020, at 5 p.m. Check Snopes’ state-by-state vote-by-mail guide for more information.

2020年9月20日
发表者 minici
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保护邮寄投票免受欺诈的 6 种方式

邮寄投票过程有几个内置的保障措施,这些措施加在一起,使一个人很难以欺诈投票,甚至更难以在能够摆动选举结果的规模上进行选民欺诈。

【原文】

This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.


Voter fraud is very rare, whether people vote in person or by mail. That much is clear from a large body of research.

One of us is a political scientist at the University of Washington, and the other is a former elections commissioner who now studies voting laws. We can explain why voter fraud is so rare – especially for mail-in ballots, which have drawn both the interest and concern of many people this year.

The Postal Service coordinates with state and local election departments to flag any ballots that deviate in even minor ways from typical procedure. For instance, a Texas county commissioner was deemed guilty of voter fraud after post office employees found him improperly returning 56 mail-in ballots completed by other voters.

The agency also has its own police force, the U.S. Postal Inspection Service, which investigates potential crimes that relate to the mail.

6. Voter fraud is a serious federal and state crime

For a federal election, each act of voter fraud can be punished by five years in prison and a US$10,000 fine, plus any additional state penalties.

By contrast, all that work put into attempting fraud would net the perpetrator only a single vote in favor of their preferred candidate. As a report from the Brennan Center for Justice succinctly put it, “That single extra vote is simply not worth the price.”

Voters who choose to vote by mail in November can be confident that their own ballot – and those of their neighbors – will be protected from fraud.The Conversation


Charlotte Hill, Ph.D. Candidate in Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley and Jake Grumbach, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Washington

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

2020年9月20日
发表者 minici
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假 “BLM 宣言” 取自意大利法西斯主义文件

BlmMemissto.com 似乎旨在破坏和诋毁反对种族不公正和警察暴行的更广泛运动。

【原文】

In the early autumn of 2020, social media users critical of the movement for racial justice known as Black Lives Matter (BLM) began posting links to a website, BLMManifesto.com, that claimed to feature the BLM manifesto.

“Everyone should be deeply concerned,” one Facebook user wrote in a group dedicated to opposing Michigan’s Democratic Gov. Gretchen Whitmer. “If you have not read the manifesto of BLM, you need to. This is what our governor is supporting.” Another user replied: “Oh my, it is an eye opening read! To think this [crap] is supported by Democrats. Nov. 3 head to your physical polling place …”

On Aug. 5, 2020, another Facebook user posted a link to the website, adding “If you take the time to read it, the violations of the US Constitution are blatant,” to which someone else replied: “This [manifesto] looks more like it’s coming from the Islamic [Muslim] terrorists trying to impose their sharia law [on] all the Americans…”

BLMManifesto.com features a black, white, and yellow color scheme, with a raised fist symbol — which has been used as a symbol of “unity and solidarity“, the BLM movement, and as a symbol of “Black power” — displayed prominently on the homepage, along with the following description:

“THE MANIFESTO OF OUR STRUGGLE

“AFRICAN BROTHERS AND SISTERS! HERE IS THE PROGRAM OF A REAL BLACK MOVEMENT. IT IS TIME FOR A REVOLUTION THAT IS NON-DOGMATIC, INNOVATIVE AND AGAINST PREJUDICE.”

The manifesto itself is broken into four sections, each addressing different varieties of “injustice.” Each section comes with an awkwardly phrased heading: “For the political injustice: we demand …”, “for the racial injustice: we demand …” and so on. The manifesto, such as it is, can be read in full here.

Some of its more eye-catching proposals include: abolishing the legislative and judicial branches of government; giving full voting rights and eligibility to hold office to immigrants living in the U.S. illegally; nationalization of all transport industries; reduction of the retirement age to 55 years; nationalization of weapons and ammunitions manufacturing; the seizure and redistribution of taxes, profits from military contracts, and assets owned by religious institutions, as reparations to the descendants of slaves and to indigenous Americans.

Far from being an authentic set of proposals associated with the BLM movement, the text was actually almost entirely taken from the Fascist Manifesto of 1919, and tweaked in order to give the appearance of relating to racial injustice. The following graphics show each section of the fake “BLM Manifesto” side-by-side with the corresponding section from “The Manifesto of the Italian Fasci of Combat,” published in Mussolini’s “Il Popolo d’Italia” newspaper, in June 1919:

It’s not clear who created BLMManifesto.com, or what the motivations were in doing so. The site was first registered in June 2020, and an associated Twitter account was created in July 2020. It has so far published only two tweets. In one, on July 25, the author claimed that the manifesto had been “founded within the CHOP [Capitol Hill Organized Protest] in Seattle.” In the second tweet, on Aug. 1, the author tagged two antifascist groups and encouraged protesters against racial injustice and police brutality in Portland, Oregon, writing:

“In regards to the recent withdrawal of federal agents in [Portland], comrades DO NOT STOP FIGHTING! Continue the fight, keep winning! White supremacy cannot be voted out! An equal society cannot be voted in! We can only make the future we want with our own hands.”

The fact that the website and Twitter account were both created during the summer of 2020, a period of escalating tensions and widespread protests over racial injustice and police brutality, combined with the earnestness of @BLMManifesto’s tweets, suggest that the project is a serious one, intended to damage the wider BLM movement by falsely linking it with policy proposals that are adapted from the manifesto of Mussolini’s fascists. 

However, it’s also possible that BLMManifesto.com is an elaborate act of trolling, a prank, or some kind of experiment. Either way, it’s already being used as ammunition in social media debates over the movement against racial injustice and police brutality, and as part of the broader electoral battle in 2020. 

2020年9月20日
发表者 minici
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露丝·贝德·金斯堡帮助塑造现代妇女权利时代

当他提名金斯堡为最高法院法官时,比尔·克林顿总统将她代表妇女的法律工作与瑟古德·马歇尔代表非裔美国人所做的划时代工作相比较。

【原文】

This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.


Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg died on Friday, the Supreme Court announced.

Chief Justice John Roberts announced in a statement that “Our nation has lost a jurist of historic stature.”

Ginsburg represented widower Stephen Wiesenfeld in challenging a Social Security Act provision that provided parental benefits only to widows with minor children.

Wiesenfeld’s wife had died in childbirth, so he was denied benefits even though he faced all of the challenges of single parenthood that a mother would have faced. The Supreme Court gave Wiesenfeld and Ginsburg a win in 1975, unanimously ruling that sex-based distinction unconstitutional.

And two years later, Ginsburg successfully represented Leon Goldfarb in his challenge to another sex-based provision of the Social Security Act: Widows automatically received survivor’s benefits on the death of their husbands. But widowers could receive such benefits only if the men could prove that they were financially dependent on their wives’ earnings.

Ginsburg also wrote an influential brief in Craig v. Boren, the 1976 case that established the current standard for evaluating the constitutionality of sex-based laws.

Like Wiesenfeld and Goldfarb, the challengers in the Craig case were men. Their claim seemed trivial: They objected to an Oklahoma law that allowed women to buy low-alcohol beer at age 18 but required men to be 21 to buy the same product.

But this deceptively simple case illustrated the vices of sex stereotypes: Aggressive men (and boys) drink and drive, women (and girls) are demure passengers. And those stereotypes affected everyone’s behavior, including the enforcement decisions of police officers.

Under the standard delineated by the justices in the Boren case, such a law can be justified only if it is substantially related to an important governmental interest.

Among the few laws that satisfied this test was a California law that punished sex with an underage female but not with an underage male as a way to reduce the risk of teen pregnancy.

These are only some of the Supreme Court cases in which Ginsburg played a prominent part as a lawyer. She handled many lower-court cases as well. She had plenty of help along the way, but everyone recognized her as the key strategist.

In the century before Ginsburg won the Reed case, the Supreme Court never met a gender classification that it didn’t like. Since then, sex-based policies usually have been struck down.

I believe President Clinton was absolutely right in comparing Ruth Bader Ginsburg’s efforts to those of Thurgood Marshall, and in appointing her to the Supreme Court.The Conversation


Jonathan Entin, Professor Emeritus of Law and Adjunct Professor of Political Science, Case Western Reserve University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

2020年9月20日
发表者 minici
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卡马拉·哈里斯告诉雅各布·布莱克她为他感到骄傲吗?

副总统候选人在威斯康星州会见了布莱克的家人后警方枪杀了布莱克几次。

【宣称】

美国参议员卡马拉·哈里斯会见了雅各布·布莱克,一位米姆声称,“强奸了一个女人”,并告诉他,她 “为他骄傲” 于 2020 年 9 月。

【结论】

混合物

【原文】

In September 2020, U.S. Sen. Kamala Harris, D-Calif., visited the family of Jacob Blake, a Black man shot in the back by police on Aug. 23 in Kenosha, Wisconsin. Harris, the Democratic vice presidential candidate, also spoke to Blake himself over the phone as he recovered in hospital from his injuries. Details about their conversation spread on the internet and drew censure as social media users learned Blake had previously been accused of sexual assault.

Snopes readers shared a Facebook post, asking if Harris had indeed told Blake — a man who had committed “rape,” the meme claimed — that she was “proud of him.”

The post read: “Just so women are clear … Kamala Harris went to see a man that raped a woman and told him she’s proud of him!”

Blake was charged with third-degree sexual assault of his ex-girlfriend, but has not been tried or convicted. In July 2020, prosecutors in Kenosha, Wisconsin, successfully applied for an arrest warrant for Blake on charges of third-degree sexual assault, criminal trespass, and disorderly conduct, all of which were additionally designated as acts of domestic abuse. In Wisconsin, third-degree sexual assault is defined as: “Whoever has sexual intercourse with a person without the consent of that person is guilty of a Class G felony.”

According to Crump: “In a moving moment, Jacob Jr. told Sen. Harris that he was proud of her, and the senator told Jacob that she was also proud of him and how he is working through his pain.”

Since this is a secondhand account of the encounter, we have reached out to Harris’ campaign to confirm what she said to Blake and will update this as we receive more information. 

We should note that Harris’ visit to Blake’s family took place after she criticized the police officers’ handling of the situation. In August she told NBC News that there should be a thorough investigation and based on what she saw in the video of the shooting, “the officer should be charged.” Harris added, “in America, we know these cases keep happening. And we have had too many Black men in America who have been the subject of this kind of conduct. And it’s gotta stop.”

Based on Crump’s statement, Harris expressed that she was proud of Blake as he made his recovery. Given that Blake was also previously charged, but not convicted of sexual assault, we rate this claim as a “Mixture.”

2020年9月20日
发表者 minici
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说唱歌手 YNW 梅莉在监狱里被刺死吗?

在 “恶作剧” 新闻网站发布后,说唱歌手的消亡传播在 2019 年 12 月。

【宣称】

说唱歌手 YNW 梅利,真名杰米尔恶魔,于 2019 年 12 月在监狱里被刺死。

【结论】


【原文】

In December 2019, readers inquired about several online posts that purported to announce the death of the rapper YNW Melly, whose real name is Jamell Demons. 

On Dec. 9 and Dec. 10, posts emerged on various unreliable websites — including two that invite users to “prank your friends” — falsely claiming that the 20-year-old had been stabbed to death in prison. On Dec. 9, the website Channel 45 News published a short post with the headline “YNW Melly Stabbed to Death,” along with a photograph of Demons and the following text:

“Authorities said that it all happened in a prison riot between to [sic] gangs. Which left the victim found dead with a knife in his abdomen. YNW Melly stabbed to death!”

Channel 45 News invites users to “create a prank and trick your friends” by generating a vaguely authentic-looking fake news post from a headline and text inputted by the user, as shown below:

Another user posted a second fake article using the prank news generator NSFNews. That post had the headline “YNW Melly Stabbed in Jail” and reported that:

“Jamall [sic] Maurice Demons otherwise known as YNW Melly has been stabbed while in jail. Authorities have confirmed Melly to be in critical condition this morning after a stabbing over a gang related incident. Melly encountered two gang members in the Jail who preceded to stab him multiple times. We will update more as the story continues.”

Like Channel 45 News, NSFNews invites users to “Write an article and prank your friends for fun.”

Based on these demonstrably fabricated stories, rumors of Demons’ demise spread quickly on social media and other websites, including DeadDeath and Market News, which shared what they described as “unconfirmed” reports that the rapper had been killed. 

The spread of the rumor was fueled in part by the fact that Demons was indeed in prison in December 2019, adding a modicum of credibility to claims that he had been killed there. In February 2019, Demons was arrested and charged with two counts of first-degree murder and has since been incarcerated in Broward County Jail in Florida, according to prison records.

The rapper’s mother, Jamie Demons, quickly dispelled rumors of her son’s death, posting a short video to Instagram in which she explained: “Melly is fine. I just talked to him this morning. He has not been injured whatsoever. He’s fine, he’s in great spirits, and he’ll be home soon.”

2020年9月20日
发表者 minici
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阿米莉亚·巴萨诺:真正的莎士比亚?

一个叫阿米莉亚·巴萨诺的黑人女人真的写了威廉·莎士比亚的戏剧吗?不太可能

【宣称】

一个名叫阿米莉亚·巴萨诺的黑人女人已被证明是威廉·莎士比亚所有戏剧的真实(未知)作者。

【结论】


【原文】

In August 2015, a meme claiming that a black woman named Amelia Bassano Lanyer was the true (uncredited) author of all of William Shakespeare’s plays began circulating online:

Although the authorship of Shakespeare’s plays remains a topic of some debate among scholars, the above-displayed meme contains several factual errors.

First, Aemilia Bassano (later Emilia Lanier) was indeed a published author, not someone whose work was suppressed because of her race or gender. In fact, the Shakespearean Authorship Trust notes that Bassano became the “first woman to publish a book of original poetry” when her work Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum was put into print in 1611:

Brought up opposite the theatre district in a family of Venetian Jews of Moroccan ancestry, at the age of 7 she was given to be educated by Countess Susan Bertie, in the family headed by Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby. At the age of 13 she became mistress to Lord Hunsdon, the man in charge of the English theatre. When she got pregnant a decade later she was expelled from court and married off to a minstrel. She was one of the first women to own and operate a school and the first woman to publish a book of original poetry Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum (1611). She died in poverty.

Second, Bassano was not black. She was born to Baptista Bassano (a Venice musician at the court of Elizabeth I) and Margaret Johnson in 1569, and biographies of her note that she “was part of a family of Italian court musicians of Moroccan/Semitic ancestry who lived as clandestine Jews.”

No contemporaneous accounts describe Bassano as “black” (or “African”), and although its provenance is uncertain, many historians believe that this miniature portrait by Nicholas Hilliard depicts Amelia Bassano:

Amelia Bassano may have been dark-complected, however. A 2009 paper published in the Oxfordian, the journal of Shakespearean authorship studies, stated that some of Bassano’s relatives were referred to as “black” when they arrived in London, likely due to their dark complexions:

Brought to London from Venice in 1538/9, the dark-skinned Bassanos, some of whom were described in contemporary records as ‘black’ and who may have been of Moroccan as well as Jewish ancestry, became established as the Court recorder troupe.”

Lastly, the claim that Amelia Bassano wrote all of William Shakespeare’s plays is a decidedly fringe notion, even within the world of Shakespearean authorship controversies. While she is listed as a potential candidate by the Shakespearean Authorship Trust (a group seemingly determined to credit Shakespeare’s work to anyone but Shakespeare himself), even among that group she is included as just one of 66 candidates identified so far:

She has long been identified as the ‘dark lady’ of the Sonnets. Her candidacy was announced in March 2007 in a lecture at the Smithsonian Institution as part of the Washington Shakespeare Festival by John Hudson, artistic director of the Dark Lady Players, a New York company who perform the underlying Jewish allegories in the plays. A 5000 word major article on her appears in the Summer/Fall 2009 special issue of The Oxfordian dedicated to the top authorship candidates.

2020年9月19日
发表者 minici
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一般园林绿化所用多为月季,像这样在院子里种满玫瑰的实不多

去年8月去张北草原徒步,在酒店的院子里看到不少玫瑰。一般园林绿化所用多为月季,像这样在院子里种满玫瑰的实不多见。玫瑰与月季是蔷薇科近亲,二者区别很明显:玫瑰的茎干上布满了细刺,月季刺则大而扁平、较稀少;玫瑰叶片多褶皱和绒毛,月季的叶片平滑而有光泽。且较之月季花,玫瑰花朵单薄、脆弱,花瓣易落。


因此花店里卖的所谓“玫瑰”,其实都是月季。真正的玫瑰是没法在情人节送给情人的,因为是刺太多。不过玫瑰自有其长处:香。云南特产鲜花饼中,添加的便是玫瑰。


云南的一处玫瑰花田 


1.玫瑰之名

 

从字形上看,“玫瑰”二字皆从“玉”,本义是一种美丽的玉石。[1]作为植物名,“玫瑰”始见于《西京杂记》,西汉长安“乐游苑自生玫瑰树”。此处“玫瑰树”是否为蔷薇科之玫瑰,有待考证。[2]

 

到了唐代,诗词中的“玫瑰”已多指向今日之玫瑰花。梁开平元年(907)进士徐夤《司直巡官无诸移到玫瑰花》明确指出玫瑰似蔷薇[3]

 

芳菲移自越王台,最似蔷薇好并栽。

秾艳尽怜胜彩绘,嘉名谁赠作玫瑰。

 

原本用于美玉的“玫瑰”,何以成了蔷薇科花卉的芳名?据晚唐李匡文[4]《资暇集·梅槐》考证:“丛有似蔷薇而异其花,叶稍大者”,时人称之为“枚櫰”,应当是“梅槐”,以其“叶形处梅、槐之间”;其取名为玫瑰,“岂百花中独珍是耶?取象于玫瑰耶?[5] 看来,对于玫瑰花之得名,李匡文不太确定:难道玫瑰花是“百花中独珍”?这可是对玫瑰的激赏。


 

南宋诗人杨万里倒是写了一首《红玫瑰》歌咏其颜色与香味:

 

非关月季姓名同,不与蔷薇谱牒通。

接叶连枝千万绿,一花两色浅深红。

风流各自胭脂格,雨露何私造化功。

别有国香收不得,诗人熏入水沉中。

 

“国香”指兰花[6],“水沉”指沉香。杨万里将玫瑰与兰花、沉香类比,是对玫瑰极高的评价。明代学者王世懋《学圃杂疏》亦推测玫瑰花乃是以其“贵”而得名[7]

 

玫瑰非奇卉也,然色媚而香,甚旖旎,可食可佩,园林中宜多种。南海谚云:“蛇珠千枚,不及玫瑰。”玫瑰,美珠也。今花中亦有玫瑰,盖贵之,因以为名。

 

王世懋提到玫瑰花在园林多种,作为观赏花卉,玫瑰有粉红单瓣、白花单瓣,紫花重瓣、白花重瓣等若干品种。[8] 此花之于群芳,是否就真如美玉一样名贵呢?

 

在五代时的花卉排行榜《花经》中,玫瑰仅位列“七品三命”。对于这样的排序,北宋陶穀“时服其允当”[9] 可见在宋代,玫瑰并非多么名贵的花卉。

 

明人张谦德《瓶花谱·品花》仿照《花经》,将瓶花以“九品九命”论其次第,“一品九命”为兰、牡丹、梅、蜡梅、各色细叶菊、水仙、滇茶、瑞香、菖阳。玫瑰与紫薇、萱草等位居“五品五命”,稍有进步,但比起兰花和牡丹有很大差距。


所以,王世懋所谓玫瑰之“贵”,大概并不在其象征寓意,而在于其实用价值,其中之一就是“可食”。清初园艺著作《花镜》载[10]

 

此花之用最广,因其香美,或作扇坠香囊,或以糖霜同乌梅捣烂,名为玫瑰酱,收于持瓷瓶内曝过,经年色香不变,任用可也。

 

成书于晚清民国的清代遗闻掌故类汇编《清稗类钞·植物类》总结玫瑰的用处如下:“香气清烈,可制香水,蒸露,浸酒,和糖”。[11]

 

玫瑰制香水就不多说了,“蒸露”大概是用蒸馏的方法提取玫瑰精华,《红楼梦》里的玫瑰露即属于此。关于玫瑰和糖,《群芳谱》中载有具体做法[12]

 

采初开花,去其橐(tuó)蕊并白色者,取纯紫花瓣捣成膏,白梅水浸少时,顺研,细布绞去涩汁,加白糖再研极匀,磁器收贮任用,最香甜。亦可印作饼。晒干收用,全花白梅水浸,去涩汁,蜜煎,亦可食。

 

而提到玫瑰“浸酒”,不得不说到中国玫瑰之乡济南平阴。明清时期,平阴遍植玫瑰,当地玫瑰酿酒的历史可追溯至清代道光年间。《平阴县志续刻》(1848)记载:

 

未解黄封红友招[13],胸中块垒不须浇。

花开玫瑰夸新酿,偶对春风醉一瓢。

 

《续修平阴县志》(1934)亦有竹枝词:

 

隙地生来千万枝,恰如红豆寄相思。

玫瑰花放香如海,正是家家酒熟时。

 

最后一句写得好,由此可见平阴玫瑰种植规模之大、玫瑰酿酒产业之盛。该县志还记载:“南山一带,玫瑰花近年滋植甚繁,花时采之,造酒作酱,人多欢迎,若能提倡远出,诚一利源。”[14]可见在当时,玫瑰酒、玫瑰酱是受人喜爱的商品,花农可藉此创收。


大片玫瑰花田,不过是在徽州

 

了解玫瑰的这些用处,就能更好地理解《红楼梦》里有关玫瑰的描写。

 

2.《红楼梦》里的玫瑰

 

玫瑰原产中国,最早可能在西汉时的长安就有种植,唐诗中已多有记载,历代文人多夸赞其颜色及香味,《红楼梦》提到玫瑰的次数也不少,曹雪芹是如何写玫瑰的呢?

 

第五十六回“敏探春兴利除宿弊  时宝钗小惠全大体”,探春叹息大观园中像蘅芜苑、怡红院这样大的地方竟没有出利息之物,李纨笑答:

 

怡红院别说别的,单只说春夏天一季玫瑰花,共下多少花?还有一带篱笆上的蔷薇、月季、宝相、金银藤,单这没要紧的花草干了,卖到茶叶铺、药铺去,也值几个钱。

 

提到怡红院中“出利息之物”,李纨首先想到的就是玫瑰花。接下来又提到蔷薇、月季、宝相(蔷薇的一种)、金银藤(忍冬)这等“没要紧的花草”,从侧面说明玫瑰花的经济效益非同一般,这正好与平阴县志中关于玫瑰的记载相互印证。



小说中其他几次提到玫瑰,多与玫瑰制成的食物有关。首先是第三十四回“情中情因情感妹妹  错里错以错劝哥哥”,说贾宝玉遭父亲痛打,口渴想吃酸梅汤,袭人劝了半天才没吃,“只拿那糖腌的玫瑰卤子和了吃了半碗,又嫌吃絮了,不香甜。”王夫人听了,立即想到玫瑰露,忙命彩云去取:

 

王夫人道:“嗳哟!你不该早来和我说。前儿有人送了几瓶子香露来,原要给他一点子的,我怕他胡糟踏了,就没给。既是他嫌那些玫瑰膏子絮烦,把这个拿两瓶子去。一碗水里只用挑一茶匙子,就香得了不得呢。”说着就唤彩云来:“把前儿的那几瓶香露拿了来。”

 

彩云听说,去了半日,果然拿了两瓶来,递与袭人。袭人看时,只见两个玻璃小瓶,都有三寸大小,上面螺丝银盖,鹅黄笺上写着“木樨清露”,那一个写着“玫瑰清露”。袭人笑道:“好金贵东西!这么个小瓶儿,能有多少?”王夫人道:“那是进上的,你没看见鹅黄笺子?你好生替他收着,别遭踏了。”


明 陈淳 玫瑰图  款识:色与香同赋,江卿种亦稀,邻家走儿女,错认是蔷薇。道复。

 

正是这瓶金贵的玫瑰露,牵出一连串的好戏。第六十回“茉莉粉替去蔷薇硝 玫瑰露引来茯苓霜”,芳官问宝玉要来玫瑰露赠予柳家的五儿,因所剩不多,遂连瓶子也给了她,成为日后被诬陷偷窃的证据。

 

柳家的尤其稀罕芳官赠予的玫瑰露,因五儿舅舅的儿子热病,也想吃这些东西,于是倒了半盏子送过去:

 

直至外边她哥哥家中,她侄子正躺着,一见了这个,她哥嫂侄男,无不欢喜。现从井上取了凉水,和吃了一碗,心中一畅,头目清凉。剩的半盏,用纸覆着,放在桌上。

 

“心中一畅,头目清凉”,藉此也可以想见玫瑰露的口感及功效,果然是个“尊贵物儿”。五儿得了芳官的玫瑰露,不胜感激。身为厨役之女,却生得与平、袭、鸳、紫相类的五儿,在她十六岁这年有了人生目标——到怡红院当差。而芳官是帮助她实现梦想的唯一人选。当她从舅舅处得来同样补益的茯苓霜时,就决心要赠一些给芳官。接下来的描写,又提到怡红院的玫瑰:

 

五儿听罢,便心下要分些赠芳官,遂用纸另包了一半,趁黄昏人稀之时,自己花遮柳隐的来找芳官。且喜无人盘问。一径到了怡红院门前,不好进去,只在一簇玫瑰花前站立,远远的望着。

 

为什么五儿会站在一簇玫瑰花前?一方面,玫瑰花是怡红院中重要的经济作物;另一方面,前有芳官所赠玫瑰露,而玫瑰露由玫瑰花制成,看似闲笔,仔细想来,或许是前后呼应,别有用意。


白玫瑰 Numata Kashu (1838-1901)

 

五儿一路谨小慎微来到怡红院,忐忑不安地站在玫瑰花前,当她踮起脚尖远远地朝里望的时候,她是否在幻想未来某一天能够光明正大走进这座院子、与众姐妹成为一家人?这个愿望还未实现,素有弱疾的五儿就短命而亡。[15] 回头再看她站在玫瑰花前望眼欲穿的样子,更叫人心生怜惜。

 

除了以上几出记载,《红楼梦》还以玫瑰花来比喻尤三姐和贾探春。第六十五回“贾二舍偷娶尤二姨  尤三姐思嫁柳二郎”,贾琏说尤三姐“是块肥羊肉,只是烫得慌;玫瑰花儿可爱,刺太扎手。”同样是这一回,兴儿向尤氏姊妹介绍探春,称其浑名是“玫瑰花”:“玫瑰花又红又香,无人不爱的,只是有刺戳手。”


玫瑰之刺 


或许正是因为有刺又戳手,玫瑰并未像牡丹、兰花等被赋予更多美好的文化寓意,尽管它自古就有,花香色艳,益处也多。

 

至于说玫瑰代表爱情,则是近代才从西方传入的观念。中国古代象征爱情的植物是合欢花、并蒂莲、相思豆,玫瑰丝毫沾不上边。


[1] 西汉司马相如《子虚赋》描述云梦泽:“其石则赤玉玫瑰,琳珉昆吾,瑊玏玄厉,耎石碔砆。”西汉史游所撰字书《急就篇》:“璧碧珠玑玫瑰瓮。”颜师古注:“玫瑰,美玉名也。或曰珠之尤精者曰玫瑰。”

[2]《西京杂记》多载西汉杂史及逸闻轶事,其作者尚无定论。《隋书·经籍志》未曾著录,新旧唐书均著录为东晋葛洪,一说为西汉刘歆。

[3] 唐代文学作品写到玫瑰的还有:舒元舆《牡丹赋》“玫瑰羞死,芍药自失”,温庭筠《舞曲歌辞·屈柘词》“杨柳萦桥绿,玫瑰拂地红”,唐彦谦《玫瑰》“不知何事意,深浅两般红”。

[4] 李匡文,字济翁,宰相李夷简之子,约生于唐宪宗元和初年(806),八九十岁卒。唐文宗开成末任洛阳主簿兼图谱官,唐宣宗大中、唐懿宗咸通年间曾任房州刺史,唐僖宗、唐昭宗时先后任太子宾客、贺州刺史、宗正少卿、宗正卿。著述凡十二种。以上见张固也《〈资暇集〉作者李匡文的仕履与著述》,《文献》2000年第4期,第105页。《四库全书总目》等作“李匡乂”,清代目录学家周中孚《郑堂读书记》考订后纠正其误。

[5] (唐)李匡文撰,吴企明点校:《资暇集》,中华书局,2012年,第164-165页。

[6] “国香”语出《左传·宣公三年》“以兰有国香,人服媚之如是”,借指兰花。唐宋之问《过史正议宅》:“国香兰已歇,里树橘犹新。”宋黄庭坚《书幽芳亭》:“兰之香盖一国,则曰国香。”

[7] 转引自(清)汪灏等著:《广群芳谱》,上海书店,1985年,第1017页。王世懋乃明代著名文史学家王世贞之弟,善诗文,著述颇丰,才气名声亚于其兄。其《学圃余疏》乃晚年闲居养病时所作,分为花疏、果疏、蔬疏、瓜疏、豆疏、竹疏,自序落款时间为万历丁亥(1587)。

[8] 唐代诗人李珣《花间集》:“红豆蔻,紫玫瑰。谢娘家傍越王台。”可见唐代已有紫花品种。

[9]张翊者,世本长安,因乱南来,先主擢置上列。时拜西平昌令卒,翊好学多思致,尝戏造《花经》,以九品九命升降次第之,时服其允当。”见(宋)陶穀撰,孔一点校《清异录》,上海古籍出版社,2012年,第36页。“张翊,活动于五代时吴、南唐,生卒年不详。……北宋龙衮《江南野史》有传。”见(宋)欧阳修等著,王云整理点校《洛阳牡丹记(外十三种)》,上海书店出版社,2017年,第206页。

[10] (清)陈淏子辑,伊钦恒校注:《花镜》,农业出版社,1962年,第256页。

[11] (清)徐珂编撰:《清稗类钞》,中华书局,1981年,第5930页。

[12] 转引自《广群芳谱》,第1018页。

[13] “黄封”乃宋代官酿,以黄纸或黄罗绢封口而得名,后与“红友”皆为酒之别称。

[14] 以上平阴县志等文献参考自卢昱《平阴玫瑰:“恰如红豆寄相思”》,《大众日报》,2019年11月2日。

[15] 《脂砚斋重评石头记》(庚辰本)第七十七回“俏丫鬟抱屈夭风流  美优伶斩情归水月”借王夫人之口指出五儿已死:“你还强嘴。我且问你,前年我们往皇陵上去,是谁调唆宝玉要柳家的丫头五儿了?幸而那丫头短命死了。不然进来了,你们又连伙聚党遭害这园子呢。”程乙本《红楼梦》将此话删去,通过篡改原文,将五儿写活了。

作者简介:江汉汤汤,企业职员 / 中国美术馆志愿者讲解员 / 自由撰稿人,个人公众号“古典植物园”,现居北京。

图文编辑:蒋某人

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

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2020年9月18日
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特朗普运动将诺贝尔和平奖提名称为 “大事”,历史不同

我们研究了一个人被提名获得诺贝尔(不是 “贵族”)和平奖的标准。原来,酒吧是相当低的。

【原文】

In September 2020, two members of parliament, in Sweden and Norway respectively, said they had nominated the U.S. government and President Donald Trump for the Nobel Peace Prize for 2021. Trump, his reelection campaign, and his supporters, cited the nominations as major accomplishments and points of pride. However, the rules and history of the nomination process suggest that simply having one’s name put forward for a Nobel Peace Prize is not necessarily the honor or achievement that Trump and his backers have claimed.

On Sept. 9, 2020, Christian Tybring-Gjedde, a member of the Stortinget (Norway’s national legislative assembly) from the right-wing Fremskrittspartiet (Progress Party), conducted an interview with Fox News in which he said he had nominated Trump for the Nobel Peace Prize on the basis of a U.S.-brokered agreement, signed in August 2020, to establish full diplomatic relations between Israel and the United Arab Emirates.

On Sept. 11, 2020, Magnus Jacobsson, a Kristdemokraterna (Christian Democrat) member of the Riksdag, Sweden’s national legislative assembly, published a letter in which he proposed that the governments of the United States, Serbia, and Kosovo should jointly be awarded the next Nobel Peace Prize on the basis of a U.S.-brokered agreement to normalize economic relations between the two countries.

I have nominated the US Gov. and the governments of Kosovo and Serbia for the Nobel Peace Prize for their joint work for peace and economic development, through the cooperation agreement signed in the White House. Trade and communications are important building blocks for peace. pic.twitter.com/XuhkLbHZAV

— Magnus Jacobsson (@magnusjacobsson) September 11, 2020

It should also be noted that the Nobel Foundation does not reveal the names of nominees or nominators for 50 years, so formally speaking, we can’t yet say for certain that Tybring-Gjedde and Jacobsson did, in fact, nominate Trump for the prize for 2021. Tybring-Gjedde also claimed to have nominated Trump for the prize in 2018, and 2016 saw unconfirmed reports that an unnamed person had nominated the incoming president for that year’s prize, as well.

In 2018, a senior official from the Norwegian Nobel Committee, the five-member body that makes the ultimate decision as to the recipient of the peace prize, confirmed that two separate nominations for Trump in 2017 and 2018 appeared to have been forged and that the matter was referred to the Oslo police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

‘It’s Pretty Easy To Be Nominated’

According to the Nobel Foundation, the Swedish institution that administers the Nobel Prizes, a person cannot nominate himself/herself for the peace prize, and only living people and active organizations are valid candidates. The following categories of individual are qualified to nominate a person or entity for the peace prize:

  • Current heads of state
  • Members of governments and national assemblies in sovereign states
  • Members of l’Institut de Droit International (of which there are 167)
  • Members of the International Board of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (of which there are 17)
  • University professors, professors emeriti, and associate professors of history, social sciences, law, philosophy, theology, and religion; university rectors and university directors (or their equivalents); directors of peace research institutes and foreign policy institutes
  • People who have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Members of the main board of directors or its equivalent of organizations that have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Current and former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee (proposals by current members of the committee to be submitted no later than at the first meeting of the committee after 1 February)
  • Former advisers to the Norwegian Nobel Committee

Based on data collected by the Inter-Parliamentary Union, more than 46,000 individuals sit in national legislative assemblies throughout the world. Making a rough assumption of an average cabinet size of 20 members (based on existing research), and the 193 United Nations member states, the number of government ministers throughout the world would be around 3,800.

Based on U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics, there are around 170,000 post-secondary instructors in the academic subject areas specified by the Nobel Foundation in the U.S. alone. The worldwide figure is likely a multiple of that. In 2017, the higher education analytics firm Quacquarelli Symonds estimated that the number of universities worldwide was likely to be more than 40,000, so the “directors, rectors, and equivalents” from those institutions can also be added to the pool of nominators.

The total number of individuals eligible to nominate someone else for the Nobel Peace Prize is therefore likely to be greater than half a million, though this is only a rough estimate.

The number of nominations in a typical year is obviously only a small fraction of that figure, but still larger than many readers may have assumed. According to the organizers, 318 candidates were nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2020 (211 of them individuals and 107 entities). The highest number of candidates came in 2016, when 376 individuals and organizations received nominations.

The Nobel prizes were funded and set up in accordance with the will of Alfred Nobel, the Swedish chemist and inventor of dynamite. He intended the peace prize to be awarded to “the person who has done the most or best to advance fellowship among nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and the establishment and promotion of peace congresses.”

However, as a result of the very large pool of potential nominators, representing a wide range of viewpoints and expertise, the list of peace prize nominees is not always composed of worthy individuals. In the past, even some of the 20th century’s most controversial and reviled historical figures have managed to garner nominations, including:

  • Joseph Stalin — Responsible for the deaths of several million Soviet subjects, through political purges, enforced famine and starvation, and mass execution. Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize 1945 and 1948.
  • Benito Mussolini — Brutal Italian fascist dictator. Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by two nominators, in 1935.
  • Josip Broz (“Tito”) — Controversial Yugoslav dictator who was declared “President for Life” towards the end of his nearly three decades of rule. His secret police violently suppressed dissent and opposition to his leadership. Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1963.
  • Rafael Trujillo — Dominican dictator whose 31-year reign, from 1930 to 1961, was characterized by exceptionally brutal and violent crackdowns on perceived dissenters and opponents, as well as the October 1937 Parsley Massacre, in which Trujillo ordered the execution of thousands of Haitians, many of them carried out with machetes. Received seven nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1936.

In 2019, Olav Njolstad, secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, summed up the dynamics of the nomination process, telling the AFP news agency: “There are so many people who have the right to nominate a candidate that it’s not very complicated to be nominated.” Geir Lundestad, Njolstad’s predecessor on the committee, added: “It’s pretty easy to be nominated. It’s much harder to win.”

2020年9月18日
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特朗普分享拜登的假视频.我们问他的竞选为什么。

总统为什么不断向追随者分享错误信息,有一些有趣的理论。

【原文】

U.S. Election Day is Nov. 3, 2020. Check your state’s vote-by-mail options. Browse our coverage of candidates and the issues. And just keep fact-checking.

In mid-September 2020, disobeying Twitter’s rules prohibiting deceptive media, U.S. President Donald Trump shared a doctored video featuring Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden twice within 24 hours. It was yet another example of the president’s apparent disregard for circulating misinformation that may taint public perception.

A camera captured the former vice president playing the 2017 Latin pop song “Despacito” by Luis Fonsi from a cell phone, smiling and bopping his head at a podium during a campaign event in Kissimmee, Florida, on Sept. 15, per C-SPAN video evidence. The pop artist was in attendance and also spoke at the event.

But the edited version of the video shared by Trump replaced the pop song with N.W.A’s 1988 single “Fuck Tha Police” apparently to show Biden as being anti-law enforcement. “What is this all about?” Trump tweeted with the fake video.

China is drooling. They can’t believe this! //t.co/AAmBGgHhyR

— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) September 16, 2020

Per Twitter policies, site administrators may put the label on tweets that were deceptively altered or fabricated, or shared in a deceptive manner. Meanwhile, content that site monitors believe could “impact public safety or cause serious harm” is subject to removal. The policy stated:

We are most likely to take action (either labeling or removal […]) on more significant forms of alteration, such as wholly synthetic audio or video or content that has been doctored (spliced and reordered, slowed down) to change its meaning. […]

We also consider whether the context in which media are shared could result in confusion or misunderstanding or suggests a deliberate intent to deceive people about the nature or origin of the content, for example by falsely claiming that it depicts reality.

The misleading statement about law enforcement was not the first instance of Trump tweeting in ways that breached the above-explained policy by Twitter, whether purposefully or not.

For instance, in June 2020, the president shared a video featuring a Black child being chased by a white, supposedly “racist baby,” followed by clips of them hugging. But the video was fake — edited and doctored with a fake news chyron. Twitter labeled the video, which was no longer viewable as of this writing, as “manipulated media” — just like the doctored clip about Biden.

Just weeks later, the president perpetuated a major COVID-19 misinformation campaign by sharing a video featuring a Texas doctor named Stella Immanuel who claimed without evidence that she treated “hundreds” of COVID-19 patients and that masks weren’t necessary to prevent the virus’ spread. (See our investigation into Immanuel here, and note the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends everyone wear masks when they’re around others during the pandemic.) Social media sites, including Twitter, removed the video after Trump shared it and it had been viewed millions of times.

As for the doctored clips of Biden, in the absence of an interview with the Trump campaign, the president’s specific reasons for sharing the clips were unknown.

Theoretically speaking, however, Darren Linvill, a professor at Clemson University who researches social media disinformation, told The Washington Post in early 2020 that politicians typically share altered videos or misleading fakes (like the Biden clip) to confirm people’s biases.

In other words, the goal of the Biden video shared by Trump was not to convince Democrats to vote Trump but rather to reinforce existing beliefs among the president’s fans, using Linvill’s theory. “The more entrenched we are, the less possible it is to agree with the other side,” he said.

Regarding politicians like Trump who frequently distribute misleading content, Becca Lewis, a researcher at Stanford University who studies media manipulation, also told The Post:

They’re broadcasting to an audience that already believes or feels a certain way about a politician, so, often, when [the truth of the alteration] comes to light, people just don’t care […] They say ‘it could have been true’ or ‘nonetheless, it reflects who the person really is.’ There’s a shared form of apathy in some cases for the fact that it was manipulated at all.

2020年9月18日
发表者 minici
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伪造视频支持对拜登精神健康的虚假信念

特朗普竞选及其代理人抓住了民主党提名人乔·拜登的年龄,并一直把他描绘成精神上不适合总统。

【原文】

This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.


From Ronald Reagan in 1984 to Bob Dole in 1996 and even Hillary Clinton in 2016, candidate health has become a common theme across recent U.S. presidential campaigns.

The issue is poised to take on added significance this fall. No matter who wins, the U.S. is set to inaugurate its oldest president by a wide margin.

But disinformation is unlikely to reach everyone equally. Research from 2016 found that people were most likely to engage with disinformation when it supported their preferred candidate, an observation especially true for Trump supporters. If this extends to 2020, these videos might serve mostly to reinforce Trump voters’ beliefs about Biden’s cognitive demise rather than create new doubts within the wider electorate.

Disinformation can also affect campaigns beyond swaying voters. It can influence the agendas of news outlets. If manipulated videos succeed in bringing questions about Biden’s cognitive capabilities into the spotlight, they could detract from the Biden campaign’s core message by pressing the campaign to reassure voters about his mental health. The campaign has had to respond to these questions even before the recent circulation of the manipulated videos.

Altered video arms race

Deepfakes and cheapfakes have the potential to affect how people see and understand the world. The threats, whether to election integrity or international security, are real and have caught the attention of Congress and the Pentagon.

There are several technological efforts aimed at spotting and ultimately blocking altered videos. There has been some progress, but it’s a difficult problem. The technology is evolving into an arms race between the fakers and the detectors. For example, after researchers developed a way to identify deepfakes by looking at eye-blinking patterns, the technology adapted.

There are also efforts by the news media to come to grips with altered video in the fact-checking process. The Washington Post has developed a fact-checkers’ guide called Seeing Isn’t Believing, and Duke University’s Reporters’ Lab is developing MediaReview, a system for for fact-checkers to tag manipulated videos to alert search engines and social media platforms.

If the fakers pull ahead of the detectors in this altered video arms race, the 2020 election could come to be seen as the start of an era when people can no longer be certain that what they see is what they can believe.The Conversation


Dustin Carnahan, Assistant Professor of Communication, Michigan State University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

2020年9月18日
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这凯利麦克纳尼脸书集团从马其顿运行

记录显示,在 2020 年美国总统大选前几周,外国经营的 Facebook 集团凯利·麦克纳尼官方至少有 456 000 名成员。

【原文】

“How great is our press secretary?” asked a meme posted on July 31, 2020, with more than 2,000 comments and shares.

“Re-elect President Trump, take the House, strengthen our Senate … November is coming. If you are ready to drain the swamp say ‘YES I AM,'” another meme read, also posted on July 31.

A third meme posted on July 30 asked: “Do you stand with Kayleigh McEnany?”

These memes could be browsed in Kayleigh McEnany OFFICIAL, a Facebook group that appeared to be a gathering place for American fans of the White House press secretary. According to Google search results, at one point, its membership numbered well over 450,000.

Kayleigh McEnany OFFICIAL was not an official group for the White House press secretary, nor is there any indication that she or the White House had any involvement with it. We reached out to Facebook to ask for information on the group’s removal, and the company provided the following:

“We removed this Group in August 2020 as part of routine enforcement against spammy and inauthentic behavior because it used a range of deceptive techniques to boost their popularity on our platform. This Group was managed from Macedonia and used compromised accounts to mislead people about its origin, make their content appear more popular that it is and drive them to off-platform domains filled with pay-per click ads and to YT.”

The Facebook account named Miki Jovanovski was one of the admins in the Facebook group. His Facebook account was still active weeks after the group disappeared. A Google cache archive showed Jovanovski announcing in June: “Let’s welcome our new members: THANK YOU ALL!!!” He also posted the same day asking for help with content moderation: “There have been a lot of people who comments against Kayleigh McEnany so because that i need a moderator anyone interested for that ?”

The Facebook account that posted the “Do you stand with Kayleigh McEnany?” meme also bears the name Elisabeth Kim. However, the woman pictured in the profile photo for Elisabeth Kim is wearing a name tag that says “Marti Jordan.”

According to Google cache, Elisabeth Kim posted in July: “We did it! Let’s show her how many more fans she has!,” displaying an image celebrating 200,000 members. According to a Bing archive, the post was liked more than 10,000 times.

Another Facebook account bearing the name Rebecca Scott was seen in late July posting another membership milestone. The personal account for Rebecca Scott featured nine photos all posted January 30, 2020. Two were stock images of flowers, American flag clip art, and what appeared to be an obituary-style pet photo, among others. Eight of the nine images had no likes, comments, or shares.

This post by Rebecca Scott included a special image with a banner explaining a goal to hit one million members by Election Day. It also urged current members to invite their friends, promising: “The bigger the party, the bigger the rewards!” The post did not specify what was meant by “rewards.”

At press time, efforts to reach out to Miki Jovanovski, Elisabeth Kim, and Rebecca Scott via Facebook Messenger yielded no response. All three accounts were still active on Facebook.

2020年9月18日
发表者 minici
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特朗普政府是否扣留 911 美元卫生基金的资金?

COVID-19 大流行使一个现金紧张的纽约市难以承担 911 计划的费用。

【宣称】

特朗普政府从一个程序中扣留资金,涵盖医疗护理的病人和受伤 9/11 第一响应者.

【结论】

真的

【原文】

The 19th anniversary of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York City came with news that left many feeling outraged: The Trump administration had reportedly withheld money from a health care fund dedicated to New York City firefighters who had suffered from health problems as a result of their life-saving response to the World Trade Center.

The story came from a New York Daily News scoop dated Sept. 10, 2020, reporting that the U.S. Department of Treasury had withheld an estimated $4 million from the FDNY World Trade Center Health Program. It went viral across the internet as many commemorated the anniversary of the attack.

It’s true that the Trump administration has been withholding money from the program, the result of what appears to be a bureaucratic blunder — namely, the way the Department of Treasury tracks and collects on debts owed to the federal government.

In a letter dated Aug. 20, 2020, sent to U.S. Rep. Pete King, R-N.Y., the treasury department said that nearly $2 million had been withheld between August 2016 and May 2020 because of debts owed by New York City to the federal government.

The letter was sent to King in response to an inquiry by the congressman, asking why funds for the program were being withheld.

The Department of Treasury’s letter to King stated that the department’s Bureau of Fiscal Service is required to “offset federal payments for the collection of delinquent debts owed to the United States.” The Treasury Department’s program to offset such debts uses a Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) to link payees and debtors.

“Some payees — such as New York City — use a single TIN for many of their subdivisions, which can result in a payment for one component of the payee being subject to offset for a debt by another component of the payee,” the letter stated. “That is what happened in this case.”

FDNY Chief Medical Officer Dr. David Prezant, who also directs the affected 9/11 first responders’ health program, told the Daily News that the amount docked from the program over the years was in the range of $4 million, not $2 million:

Prezant said he was docked about half a million dollars each year in 2016 and 2017. Then it crept up to about $630,000 in 2018 and 2019. This year, Treasury has nearly tripled its extractions, diverting $1.447 million through late August, according to Prezant.

Prezant also told the Daily News that he has been trying to get an answer from the federal government and the city for years as to why the money was being withheld, but received no response until King intervened.

The funding issue became urgent with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, because while the city has been fronting the money for the 9/11 program that was withheld by the federal government, New York is now cash-strapped due to the coronavirus, the Daily News reported.

“The money that we don’t get means that physicians, nurses and support staff are not hired. We have not had to lay off anyone, yet, but we are at that brink,” Prezant told the Daily News.

We reached out to Prezant for comment but didn’t hear back in time for publication. We also asked the Department of Treasury what was being done to remedy the situation and didn’t receive an answer in time for publication.

A total of 2,977 people died on Sept. 11, 2001, when hijackers flew jetliners into the World Trade Center’s Twin Towers and the Pentagon. The attack took an especially heavy toll on New York’s firefighters, 343 of whom died after running into the burning skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, trying to rescue people when the buildings collapsed.

After the attacks, many first responders became sick from the exposure that day to toxic substances released into the air by the crumbling buildings, as well as sustained traumatic injuries and mental health scars. Two FDNY firefighters died within a day of each other in December 2019 as a result of illnesses they suffered from responding to the scene of the terrorist attack.

2020年9月18日
发表者 minici
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立秋以后,大雄山上的醉鱼草开了花

作者简介:草酱,职业橡皮章手作人,植物插画师,擅长植物与手作的跨界创作。

好久不见,这里是草酱。

 

立秋以后,大雄山上的醉鱼草开了花,但一直没有去拍。处暑、白露时节过去,直到秋分将至,我才重新想起它来。趁着一个早晨,我赶紧去拍了一下。


清早的山里凝着露水,醉鱼草的花朵看起来闪闪发亮。

 

醉鱼草总是长在山上的溪沟旁,枝叶开展,长长的紫色花序垂下来,远看像流苏。近看一朵朵花也都向下弯曲,这是它的特点。


醉鱼草之所以得名,是因为它真的能醉鱼。这与“沉鱼落雁”的迷醉不同,醉鱼草花朵虽好看,但没到那个程度。


它能醉鱼,是由于其花、叶中含有醉鱼草甙等黄酮类物质,有一定的毒性,能把鱼毒晕。把捣碎的叶子倒在河里,能使活鱼麻醉。


这是毛八角枫

 

看过醉鱼草,继续登山。彼时毛八角枫蓝色的果实也成熟了,细看色彩挺美,蓝莓的蓝。果实落在地上,踩上去咔咔嚓嚓。

 

私以为挑个舒服的天气躺在树下睡觉是人生最大享受


天朗气清,躺在树荫下吹风也好,听枝头的鸟叫,感受光影的晃动,不知不觉又睡着了,醒来突然想画画毛八角枫和醉鱼草。


画了一会儿,快到中午,就准备回家继续画。又路过醉鱼草,发现它正被好几只蝴蝶环绕。醉鱼草非常能吸引蝴蝶,它的英文名就叫“butterfly bush”,意为蝴蝶灌木。可惜醉蝶花之名另有所属,不然给醉鱼草用还挺合适的。


回到家完成了绘画。


觉得醉鱼草太美了,不如就刻成印章吧!


一组两个,都不大,但是细节不少,还挺费时间。


刻好发现紫色的印泥找不见了,只好临时用了雾蓝色,没想到意外的雅致。


手撕的西和麻纸,毛毛的感觉,很远古。植物印在上面,让我想到诗经里的词句。

终朝采蓝,不盈一襜。

 

虽然这个蓝,和我印成蓝色的醉鱼草一点关系没有。

 

作者:草酱

图文编辑:蒋某人

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.zh

转载请务必保留以上声明


2020年9月17日
发表者 minici
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特朗普促进推文虚假标记 BIDN 恋童癖者

美国总统唐纳德·特朗普向近 8600 万追随者宣传这一毫无根据的涂抹,以及其背后的匿名陈述。

【原文】

U.S. President Donald Trump entered alarming new rhetorical territory in the battle for the White House on Sept. 15, 2020, promoting a tweet that labeled his Democratic opponent, Joe Biden, a pedophile. The remarkable attack took place when Trump retweeted an earlier post by @ConservUSA38, which contained the hashtag #PedoBiden, along with a short video of Biden standing close to a woman, placing his hands on her shoulders, and leaning his face into the back of her head:

In recent years, those images have been used by critics of Biden, and supporters of Trump, as purported proof that the former vice president has a history of inappropriately touching strangers — especially women. The video was taken from the February 2015 swearing-in ceremony of Ash Carter as U.S. Secretary of Defense.

The woman shown in the video with Biden is Stephanie Carter, wife of the incoming defense secretary. In 2019, she firmly rejected efforts to present that moment as evidence of impropriety on the part of Biden, whom she said was acting as “a close friend helping someone get through a big day, for which I will always be grateful.” She wrote that:

“By the time then-Vice President Biden had arrived [at the ceremony], he could sense I was uncharacteristically nervous and quickly gave me a hug. After the swearing in, as Ash was giving remarks, he leaned in to tell me, ‘Thank you for letting him do this’ and kept his hands on my shoulders as a means of offering his support.”

No credible evidence exists that Biden has ever even been formally accused of any sexual impropriety with a child. As well containing a baseless smear, the tweet made little sense because the woman shown in the video was clearly an adult, and has herself publicly articulated her gratitude to Biden for what she unambiguously characterized as a welcome gesture of support from a close friend.

None of that prevented Trump from promoting the tweet, and the account behind it, to his nearly 86 million followers. Several hours after Snopes first recorded the president’s promotion of the post, it remained on his Twitter feed, and in that time, the tweet had garnered several thousand additional retweets and likes.

The person behind @ConservUSA38, an account that currently bears the name Conservative Girl, has not made his/her name public, and it was not immediately possible to identify the person. The poster claims to be a woman living in New Hampshire, who has in the past lived in Salem, Massachusetts, and Florida, and a former preschool teacher who is currently a caregiver for their elderly parents. We have not yet been able to verify the authenticity of those biographical details. 

In the past, @ConservUSA38 has used two separate profile photographs, both of which are different from the one currently used. Such activity can sometimes indicate that a Twitter account is inauthentic, but we have not yet found definitive proof of that in this instance.

A review of @ConservUSA38’s Twitter feed shows that the person behind the account posts prolifically on current affairs and trending content, from a conservative point of view, consistently articulating support for Trump and opposition to Biden. The person has also targeted U.S. Rep. Ilhan Omar, D-Minn., falsely claiming that Omar did not have legal immigration status, and calling for her to be deported. Omar is a naturalized U.S. citizen.

In recent days, the person behind @ConservUSA38 has repeatedly posted about the baseless smear that Biden is a pedophile, tweets given a potential audience of tens of millions after Trump promoted one of them. 

The president’s son, Donald Trump Jr., amplified that false conspiracy theory in May 2020, when he posted on Instagram a meme that featured a photograph of Biden with the phrase “See you later, alligator,” along with a photograph of an alligator and the phrase “In a while, pedophile.”

Trump Jr. suggested the meme was meant in jest, but his remarks took an earnest turn when he wrote, “That said, there’s [sic] definitely way too many Creepy Joe videos out there!” He replicated that shift in tone in a later tweet, in which he said he was “joking around,” but then added, “If the media doesn’t want people mocking & making jokes about how creepy Joe is, then maybe he should stop the unwanted touching & keep his hands to himself?” thus adding fuel to the conspiracy theory about which he also claimed to be “joking.”

Unlike Biden, the president has in fact been formally accused of raping a child. In 2016, a woman referred to in California and New York court filings by the pseudonyms “Jane Doe” and “Katie Johnson,” filed lawsuits against Trump and the multi-millionaire investor and convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein, alleging that they both raped her in 1994, when she was 13 years old. 

Trump and his lawyers vigorously denied the allegations, and the woman dropped the lawsuit in November 2016, claiming that she had received death threats.

2020年9月17日
发表者 minici
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气候变化和森林管理都助长了西方野火

气候变化和森林管理做法都促成了今天的火灾状况,减少野火风险需要解决这两个问题。

【原文】

This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.


What is driving the wildfires that are ravaging California, Oregon and Washington? President Trump and state officials have offered sharply different views.

Trump asserts that Western states haven’t done enough logging and brush clearance, allowing fuels to build up in forests. “When trees fall down after a short period of time, about 18 months, they become very dry. They become really like a matchstick … you know, there’s no more water pouring through and they become very, very — they just explode,” Trump stated in California on Sept. 14.

In sum, management policies have created tinderboxes in Western forests, and climate change has made it much more likely that those tinderboxes will erupt into destructive fires. A third factor is that development has expanded into once-wild areas, putting more people and property in harm’s way.

Addressing just part of this problem will produce incomplete solutions. Rather, I believe a multipronged strategy is what’s needed. One element is improving forest management to make these lands less primed to burn. The other is reducing carbon emissions and reining in global temperatures – the only way to moderate climate conditions that make fires larger and more likely.

The Conversation


Steven C. Beda, Assistant Professor of History, University of Oregon

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

2020年9月17日
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美国移民和海关执法承包设施大规模子宫切除术的指控引发愤怒

大多数举报人投诉涉及格鲁吉亚一家设施,特别是 COVID-19 周围的一般医疗疏忽。

【原文】

As governments fight the COVID-19 pandemic, Snopes is fighting an “infodemic” of rumors and misinformation, and you can help. Read our coronavirus fact checks. Submit any questionable rumors and “advice” you encounter. Become a Founding Member to help us hire more fact-checkers. And, please, follow the CDC or WHO for guidance on protecting your community from the disease.

A whistleblower filed a scathing complaint in September alleging that immigrants held in custody at a private detention facility in Georgia contracted by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) feared for their lives due to negligent COVID-19 practices by facility staff. The allegations included reports of insects found in food and a large number of hysterectomies performed on detained women.

After the complaint was made public, stories went viral that focused on the portion of the complaint that alleged a high number of women had undergone hysterectomies without their consent. The story sparked outrage and comparisons to Nazi Germany.

However, the bulk of the 27-page whistleblower complaint filed on Sept. 14, 2020, by Project South — a social justice and legal advocacy organization — on behalf of Dawn Wooten, a practical nurse who works at Irwin County Detention Center (ICDC) in Ocilla, Georgia, deals with medical negligence and lack of testing and precautions against COVID-19 spread.

ICE vehemently disputed this allegation. In a statement, Dr. Ada Rivera, medical director of the ICE Health Service Corps, said ICE’s data doesn’t align with the accusation:

The accusations will be fully investigated by an independent office, however, ICE vehemently disputes the implication that detainees are used for experimental medical procedures. ICE’s mission is to protect the homeland and to swiftly and quickly remove people from the country; the health, welfare and safety of ICE detainees is one of the agency’s highest priorities, any assertion or claim to the contrary is false and intentionally misleading.

All female ICE detainees receive routine, age-appropriate gynecological and obstetrical health care, consistent with recognized community guidelines for women’s health services. According to U.S. Immigration and Enforcement (ICE) data, since 2018, only two individuals at Irwin County Detention Center were referred to certified, credentialed medical professionals at gynecological and obstetrical health care facilities for hysterectomies in compliance with National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC) standards. Based on their evaluations, these specialists recommended hysterectomies. These recommendations were reviewed by the facility clinical authority and approved.

The agency said multiple stages to the approval process exist before such a surgery would be performed on an ICE detainee, including approval by a regional clinical director and consent from the patient.

According to the complaint, Wooten said she herself was retaliated against for taking time off from work to quarantine after coming down with what she feared were COVID-19 symptoms. Wooten was demoted from working full-time hours to PRN status, meaning filling in as needed.

We reached out to Project South and the Government Accountability Project, the government watchdog organization representing Wooten, but didn’t hear back in time for publication.

After stories about the complaint went viral, Government Accountability Project took to Twitter to report that a fake account impersonating Wooten had been created. The account has since been suspended.

2020年9月17日
发表者 minici
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特朗普战役的 “支持我们的部队” 广告是否采用俄罗斯喷气机?

通常很难确定有意通用图像的细节。

【宣称】

2020 年特朗普战役中的 “支援我们的部队” 广告展示了俄罗斯战斗机的图像。

【结论】

真的

【原文】

In September 2020, an image supposedly showing a “Support Our Troops” ad that was put out by U.S. President Donald Trump’s presidential campaign started to circulate on social media — along with the claim that it featured Russian fighter jets:

This is a genuine ad that was released by the Trump Make America Great Again Committee, and the planes featured in this political advertisement are indeed Russian jets. 

Politico was first to report on the error, writing:

A digital ad released by a fundraising arm of the Trump campaign on Sept. 11 calling on people to “support our troops” uses a stock photo of Russian-made fighter jets and Russian models dressed as soldiers.

The ad, which was made by the Trump Make America Great Again Committee, features silhouettes of three soldiers walking as a fighter jet flies over them.

According to the Google Transparency Report, this ad ran from Sept. 8 to Sept. 13.

Here’s a comparison of the image used in the Trump campaign ad (top) and a photograph taken by Reuters photographer Gleb Garanich (bottom) of a Mikoyan MiG-29 near a Ukraine airbase in 2016:

This is at least the second time that the Trump campaign has mistakenly used images of Russia’s military in political advertisements. A 2016 Trump campaign ad featured an image of Russian military ribbons. When the campaign was alerted to the mistake, they replaced the ribbon image with an image supposedly showing Trump touching the face of a wounded veteran. That image, too, was misleading, since the “wounded veteran” in that image was not actually a veteran and did not lose his arms in combat.

Ruslan Pukhov, director of the Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies in Moscow, told Politico that the planes in this image were Russian MiG-29s. Politico also got in contact with Arthur Zakirov, the creator of the image, who confirmed that the image featured 3D models of the MiG-29. Zakirov went on to say that this image was a composite of several different elements. The mountains in the background, for instance, come from Greece, and the soldiers in the foreground are taken from various armies. 

Zakirov blamed the Trump campaign’s error on “bad fact-checking” and “inattention” to detail:

“This is a completely recreated scene from various photographs of mine … Everything happened through inattention.”

While the Trump campaign did use Russian planes in an advertisement encouraging United States citizens to “support our troops,” it should be noted that this image is purposefully generic. It is available via Shutterstock along with the description, “military silhouettes of soldiers and airforce against the backdrop of sunset sky.”

A lightened version of these soldier silhouettes also carried a rather nondescript description: “five soldiers of different armies.” Another version of the image shows these planes flying in front of a Syrian flag

The Trump campaign is not the only entity to use this generic Shutterstock image to illustrate information about the United States’ military. British tabloid the Daily Mail, for instance, used this Shutterstock image to illustrate a 2017 article about the American military. 

2020年9月17日
发表者 minici
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Netflix 首席执行官是否因儿童色情制品被逮捕?

在社交媒体上散布虚假谣言,以利用对恋童癖的高度恐慌。

【宣称】

Netflix 首席执行官里德·黑斯廷斯因涉嫌拥有儿童色情制品而被捕。

【结论】


【原文】

In September 2020, as social media users accused Netflix of promoting pedophilia due to a promotional poster for the award-winning French film “Cuties,” the website TorontoToday.net published an article claiming that Reed Hastings, the streaming service’s CEO, had been arrested on suspicion of possession of child pornography:

This is not a genuine news report. Hastings was not arrested by the FBI, and the accusations circulating on social media that the Netflix CEO was involved in child pornography are baseless and largely driven by pedophilia panic that consumed portions of the internet in 2020. 

Hasting is the CEO of one of the world’s largest streaming services. If he truly had been arrested by the FBI, it would certainly warrant a press release from the FBI, and would undoubtedly make headlines in credible media outlets. However, the only source for this news appears to be random social media posts and an article published to a website with a history of spreading misinformation. 

TorontoToday.net is a relatively new website, but it has already been responsible for at least two viral hoaxes. Shortly after Black Panther actor Chadwick Boseman died from colon cancer, the website published a false report claiming that he had been poisoned. The website was also responsible for the false rumor that Russian President Vladimir Putin’s daughter had died from a COVID-19 vaccine. 

The website deleted its false report about Hasting’s arrest, but an archived version of the page can be found here. It appears that TorontoToday.net originally published this article under the headline “Netflix CEO gets BUSTED with 13,000 files of CHILD PORNOGRAPHY.” Then, the site updated the article to include the word “reports” before the headline, and deleted the original text of the article claiming a threat of legal action from a “billionaire we won’t name.”

Unfortunately, we have received threats of litigation over the original article posted on Toronto Today from a Billionaire that we won’t name.

Upon consideration, we have removed the original article from the website, and from Toronto Today-controlled Facebook and Twitter accounts. It’s not worth the risk.

We apologize for any confusion. However, Toronto Today was NOT the original source for this information, nor is it responsible for the negative fallout that the movie “Cuties” has caused for Netflix.

The updated version of the article has also been deleted. An archived page can be found here

This fake report about the arrest of Netflix CEO Reed Hasting is just the latest in a long series of false rumors concerning pedophilia.

In 2020, pedophilia panic consumed portions of the internet, in large part because these false rumors were being amplified by the growing QAnon conspiracy movement. In the last few months alone, we’ve covered false rumors about furniture stores trafficking children via large cabinets, department stores promoting pedophilia by selling shirts containing images of pizza, and the country of Greece classifying pedophilia as a disability.

While pedophilia and sex trafficking are certainly real issues, the aforementioned stories are false. In fact, the National Human Trafficking Hotline released a statement saying that these pedophilia conspiracy theories were making it more difficult to help people who are actually in danger of being trafficked. 

2020年9月16日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

为什么性别揭示失控

越来越奢侈的派对 —— 追求独特的病毒性特技的推动 —— 反映了父母在我们的 “关注经济” 中面临的一些新的奇怪压力。

【原文】

This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.

Over Labor Day weekend, two expectant parents didn’t get the viral hit they had hoped for. During a gender reveal party in Southern California, a “smoke-generating pyrotechnic device” was supposed to simply reveal a color – pink for a girl, blue for a boy – before a crowd of onlookers. Instead, it sparked a wildfire that has scorched more than 10,000 acres of land. As a sociologist who studies how social media is used to navigate gender, identity and life transitions, I’ve watched gender reveal parties become their own mini-industry over the past decade.

The increasingly extravagant parties – fueled by a quest for unique, viral stunts – reflect some of the new bizarre pressures parents face in our “attention economy.”

Guesswork Gives Way to Certainty

Gendering children prior to birth is a unique phenomenon of the 20th century.

Custom cakes, themed party supplies, confetti cannons, smoke bombs and t-shirts are designed to create the perfect Instagram post. Celebrity and influencer gender reveals are vehicles for brand sponsorships, product placements and media coverage.

The marketplace even adapted to the coronavirus pandemic by offering “It’s a girl” masks, “It’s a boy” hand sanitizers and even gender reveal games that can be played virtually.

Parents, particularly mothers, already face intense scrutiny and cultural expectations of “ideal motherhood,” whether it’s the decision to breastfeed, have a “natural birth” or go back to work. Whether or not to have a gender reveal has become yet another “choice” that expectant parents must make.

Even the decision not to have a gender reveal becomes a form of social media currency. For example, social media influencer Iskra Lawrence announced on Instagram that she would not have a gender reveal – and included sponsored links to a clothing brand in the post.

Gender reveals are sometimes sneered at for reinforcing a gender binary, encouraging wasteful extravagance and creating very real safety hazards.

But distilling a gender reveal party down to the foolish choices of expectant parents ignores the cultural and economic forces that shape these decisions. It allows us to mock individuals for their parenting decisions rather than criticize the attention economy for having incentivized these reveals.

We have the excesses of capitalism to thank for a rapidly changing climate that has worsened fires raging throughout the American West.

Is a fire burning thanks to a gender reveal party fueled by anything different?The Conversation

Jenna Drenten, Associate Professor of Marketing, Loyola University Chicago

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

2020年9月16日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

谁正式宣布美国总统选举的获胜者?

美国的总统选举认证过程不寻常和复杂,涉及所有 50 个州和哥伦比亚特区、参议院、众议院、国家档案馆和联邦登记局。

【原文】

This article by [AUTHOR NAME(S)] is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.


With the U.S. presidential election rapidly approaching at a time of extraordinary political and social disruption, the possibility of an unclear or contested result is coming under scrutiny.

Unlike many other countries, where the president or prime minister is chosen by direct popular vote, in the U.S., a candidate may win the popular vote and still not be elected to the nation’s highest office. The U.S. also differs from most other democracies in that it has no independent electoral commission to certify the final vote count.

In the extraordinary event that no candidate wins in the Electoral College, the House of Representatives meets to elect the next president. This is how John Quincy Adams became president in 1824.

Established almost 250 years ago, this complex process is a foundation of American democracy. Many have questioned whether this antiquated system truly represents the will of the people in modern America.

But for 2020, it remains the process that will decide the presidential race.The Conversation


Amy Dacey, Executive Director of the Sine Institute of Policy and Politics, American University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

2020年9月15日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

Kroger 是否告诉员工他们可以戴 BLM 面具,但不能戴旗帜面具?

将颜色背景添加到毫无根据的声明中并不会使其更加事实。

【宣称】

Kroger 禁止其员工佩戴美国国旗面具,但允许他们戴 BLM 面具。

【结论】


【原文】

As governments fight the COVID-19 pandemic, Snopes is fighting an “infodemic” of rumors and misinformation, and you can help. Read our coronavirus fact checks. Submit any questionable rumors and “advice” you encounter. Become a Founding Member to help us hire more fact-checkers. And, please, follow the CDC or WHO for guidance on protecting your community from the disease.

On Sept. 5, 2020, a message started circulating on Facebook claiming that grocery chain Kroger had banned its employees from wearing face masks adorned with the American flag, but permitted its employees to wear masks in support of the Black Lives Matter movement:

There is no basis for this claim. This claim appears to have been made up out of whole cloth and placed against a colorful background, which, for some unexplained reason, lends statements unearned credibility. 

Kroger started requiring employees to wear face masks in stores in April 2020 in order to comply with CDC guidelines on how to best slow the spread of COVID-19. Kroger said at the time that they would be supplying masks for its employees. An employee news bulletin from Harris Teeter, a grocery store owned by Kroger, noted that employees could provide their own masks as long as the masks were of a solid color (or a simple pattern) and that they were absent of slogans or third party logos.

We have not come across any news stories about Kroger employees being told not to wear American flag masks. We have, however, come across several stories about Kroger explicitly prohibiting employees from wearing BLM masks. 

In August 2020, there was a small controversy after some Kroger employees at stores in Detroit, Michigan, started wearing BLM shirts to work. According to Fox 2 Detroit, some employees also put on BLM masks. Management at these stores, however, told employees to remove or cover up these items, and a spokesperson for the store said that Kroger’s uniform policy states that clothing “must be clean, professional, and without visible pictures, logos, words or abbreviations.”

Kroger said in a statement:

“Our uniform policy must be clean, professional, and without visible pictures, logos, words or abbreviations including masks (ONLY exception is Local UFCW 876 mask or company provided mask). All associates must wear aprons to show that we are here to serve our customers, communities and each other.”

Kroger release a second statement acknowledging it wanted to “offer a workplace that is uplifting, inclusive, and consistent with Our Values: Integrity, Honesty, Diversity, Inclusion, Safety and Respect” and that it had produced wristbands that employees could wear in order to show their support for Black customers and communities:

“At Kroger, we strive to offer a workplace that is uplifting, inclusive and consistent with Our Values: Integrity, Honesty, Diversity, Inclusion, Safety and Respect. Many associates have expressed a desire to stand together with their communities and show their support through their clothing, facial coverings and accessories. While we are not adjusting our existing dress code, rules or policies, we acknowledge our associates’ feedback and want all to feel supported and heard.

“To offer a more consistent solution, we produced wristbands and made them available to all associates. Working with our partners, including a Black-owned supplier, we produced two wristband options, which were distributed in early July: one that represents our commitment to Standing Together with our Black associates, customers and communities against racism in all forms, and the other to serve as a reminder of Our Values that guide us.”

In other words, Kroger does not allow its employees to wear BLM masks (or any masks containing slogans or logos) as claimed in the viral Facebook post. It’s possible that flag masks would also be prohibited under this policy as well, but Kroger did not ban flag masks while allowing BLM masks. 

It’s possible that the above-displayed Facebook post conflated Kroger with another grocery chain, Food Lion, which was briefly mired in controversy when they prohibited employees from wearing American flag masks. This, again, was not a “ban” on the flag, but an enforcement of the grocery store’s uniform policy, which, like Kroger, prohibited employees from wearing items with “writing, insignia or symbols.” Food Lion later modified its policy to allow flag masks.

In summary, Kroger started requiring employees to wear masks to combat the spread of COVID-19 in April 2020. The company provides masks to employees. For those who choose to wear their own masks, these face coverings have to conform to the company’s uniform policy, which prohibits the display of slogans and logos, such as BLM. It’s possible that this policy would also prevent employees from wearing flag masks, but we’ve yet to come across any reports from employees stating that this is the case. Regardless, it is false to say that Kroger banned flag masks while allowing BLM masks. 

We’ve reached out to Kroger for more information, and will update this article accordingly. 

2020年9月14日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

斯特吉斯摩托车拉力赛是否对 250 万例冠状病毒负责?

一篇非同行审查的论文在互联网上起飞… 然后来到了批评者。

【宣称】

2020 年斯特吉斯摩托车集会导致 25 万名 COVID-19 冠状病毒病例。

【结论】

未经证实

【原文】

As governments fight the COVID-19 pandemic, Snopes is fighting an “infodemic” of rumors and misinformation, and you can help. Read our coronavirus fact checks. Submit any questionable rumors and “advice” you encounter. Become a Founding Member to help us hire more fact-checkers. And, please, follow the CDC or WHO for guidance on protecting your community from the disease.

In September 2020, social media was abuzz over a report from the IZA Institute of Labor Economics that linked 266,796 COVID-19 coronavirus cases (a figure that was reported as “more than 250,000” in various headlines) to the Sturgis motorcycle rally held in Sturgis, South Dakota:

IZA Institute of Labor Economics truly did publish a paper estimating that the rally was linked to a surge of approximately 250,000 COVID-19 cases (representing a cost of $12.2 billion). However, while the rally likely contributed to a rise in coronavirus cases, the figures stated here are estimates from a non-peer reviewed paper and have not been demonstrated definitively. Furthermore, various statisticians and epidemiologists have indicated the study had some flaws. 

Before we get to the expert opinions on this study, let’s dispel a few quick rumors on social media. This study did not claim, for instance, that 250,000 people tested positive for COVID-19 shortly after attending the rally. The research attempted to quantify how many cases of COVID-19 could potentially be linked to people who attended the rally, traveled to other locations, and then spread the disease among their communities. 

It should also be noted that this is an estimate based on a wide variety of factors, not an actual headcount of COVID-19 patients who attended, or knew someone who attended, the rally. As mentioned above, this study was not peer-reviewed and was prefaced with a piece of text noting that “IZA Discussion Papers often represent preliminary work and are circulated to encourage discussion.”

The IZA paper’s finding that 250,000 COVID-19 cases were linked to the Sturgis rally was based on three key factors: anonymized smartphone data that showed an influx of out-of-state visitors and a sharp increase in foot traffic at “restaurants and bars, hotels, entertainment venues, and retail establishments”; a decrease in stay-at-home activity in the surrounding area; and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data that showed COVID-19 cases increased both in South Dakota where the rally was held, and in areas where Sturgis attendees traveled to in the days after the rally.

While this study may provide a broad estimate on how Sturgis could have impacted the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of epidemiologists and statisticians have taken issue with models used in the study and the report’s findings. 

Joshua Clayton, South Dakota’s state epidemiologist, said that the study’s findings did “not align with what we know” and argued that IZA did not account for other contributing factors, such as the fact that schools reopened around the same time as the rally.

Local news outlet KEVN reported:

“From what we know the results do not align with what we know,” state epidemiologist Joshua Clayton said.

He mentioned that a white paper isn’t peer-reviewed. And pointed out the paper doesn’t note schools in the state also reopened close after the Rally ended, which could have attributed to the surge of cases in South Dakota.

Rex Douglas, the director of the Machine Learning for Social Science Lab (MSSL), Center for Peace and Security Studies, University of California San Diego, and Kevin Griffin, an assistant professor at the Vanderbilt School of Medicine, also took issue with the methodology used in this paper. Griffin, for instance, noted that cases were already on the rise when the rally took place, while Douglas noted that authorities simply don’t have the data to reach such a precise conclusion. 

Douglas wrote:

They want to know if mass-events (protests, conventions, rallies) spread covid. But we don’t have individual level data on attendees and comparable stay-homes. So they resort to a diff-in-diff, looking to see if a place has more, less, or the same number of confirmed cases soon after an event than they ‘should.’ The argument is that the trend line for an entire location after time T can tell us if what happened on T is safe or risky.

For why this research design does not answer that question, imagine running your own experiment. Go outside and cough in a stranger’s face right now. Now if next week your county’s confirmed case rate goes up, that’s bad behavior, stays the same it’s ok, and goes down it’s good!

Jennifer Beam Dowd, the deputy director of the Leverhulme Centre for Demographic Science at the University of Oxford, also took issue with the paper’s conclusion in an article published on Slate. Generally speaking, Dowd argued that the researchers made assumptions that don’t always play out in reality. More specifically, Dowd took issue with how the study confidently presented a precise conclusion (266,796 COVID-cases) despite noisy results. 

The 266,796 number also overstates the precision of the estimates in the paper even if the model is taken at face value. The confidence intervals for the “high inflow” counties seem to include zero (meaning the authors can’t say with statistical confidence that there was any difference in infections across counties due to the rally). No standard errors (measures of the variability around the estimate) are provided for the main regression results, and many of the p-values for key results are not statistically significant at conventional levels. So even if one believes the design and assumptions, the results are very “noisy” and subject to caveats that don’t merit the broadcasting of the highly specific 266,796 figure with confidence, though I imagine that “somewhere between zero and 450,000 infections” would not have been as headline-grabbing.

The claim that 250,000 COVID-19 cases were linked to Sturgis is based on one study’s estimate of how the motorcycle rally could have impacted the pandemic. As several statisticians and epidemiologists have noted, the models used for this study contained flaws, and the report arrived at a conclusion that was more precise than the available data would have allowed. 

2020年9月14日
发表者 minici
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五角大楼 9/11 日托科拉尔

四十名海军陆战队在九月十一日营救了五角大楼日托设施的孩子,然后把他们关在婴儿床的保护性畜栏里?

【宣称】

九月十一日,四十名海军陆战队从五角大楼托儿所救出了孩子,然后将他们关在婴儿床的保护下。

【结论】


【原文】

While the urge to take something good from the awfulness that was 11 September 2001 serves as motivation to look to uplifting stories from that day, true accounts of such nature are few and far between. This tale about 40 Marines standing guard over a corral of cribs protecting babies and toddlers rescued from a daycare center near the Pentagon is a bit of fiction:

[Collected via e-mail, September 2008]

I wonder why, no, I know why you never saw this on the mainstream media!

Just came from the memorial ceremony here at NORTHCOM. LTC (CH) Robert Leivers led the group in a ceremony here at the headquarters. During the ceremony, he relayed this little-known story from the Pentagon on 9/11: “During a visit with a fellow chaplain, who happened to be assigned to the Pentagon, I had a chance to hear a first-hand account of an incident that happened right after Flt 77 hit the Pentagon. The Chaplain told me what happened at a daycare center near where the impact occurred.

This daycare had many children, including infants who were in heavy cribs. The daycare supervisor, looking at all the children they needed to evacuate, was in a panic over what they could do; there were many children, mostly toddlers, as well as the infants that would need to be taken out with the cribs. There was no time to try to bundle them into carriers and strollers.

Just then a young Marine came running into the center and asked what they needed. After hearing what the center director was trying to do, he ran back out into the hallway and disappeared. The director thought, ‘well, there we are- on our own.’ About 2 minutes later, that Marine returned with 40 others in tow. Each of them grabbed a crib with a child, and the rest started gathering up toddlers. The director and her staff then helped them take all the children out of the center and down toward the park near the Potomac and the Pentagon.

Once they got about 3/4 of a mile outside the building, the Marines stopped in the park, and then did a fabulous thing – they formed a circle with the cribs, which were quite sturdy and heavy, like the covered wagons in the West. Inside this circle of cribs, they put the toddlers, to keep them from wandering off. Outside this circle were the 40 Marines, forming a perimeter around the children and waiting for instructions. There they remained until the parents could be notified and come get their children.”

The NORTHCOM chaplain then said- “I don’t think any of us saw nor heard of this on any of the news stories of the day. It was an incredible story.”

I must say- there wasn’t a dry eye in the room. The thought of those Marines and what they did and how fast they reacted- could we expect any less from them?? It was one of the most touching stories from the Pentagon I’ve EVER heard.


[Collected via e-mail, February 2013]

On September 11, 2001, a hijacked plane knifed into the side of the Pentagon. We all know that. What very few people have heard is shortly afterwards, the director of a nursery in the building stood looking at the children in her charge, wondering how to move all of the babies and toddlers to safety. A marine rushed into the room and asked if she was alright. She needed help and she told him that. He turned and ran out; the woman assumed that he had gone away for good. As she formulated a plan of action, she heard footsteps in the hall. The man had returned – this time, though, he was not alone. At least forty other Marines followed him. They picked up the babies in their cribs, the toddlers, the helpless infants. They carried them through the halls and to a nearby park, where they arranged the cribs in a circle and set the toddlers in the middle. Then they stood guard outside, never allowing the children to be unattended.

When I first saw this picture, I thought that the man carrying the children was their father. Now I realize that he was not related to them by blood, but by nationality. He is an American. They are American children. He is not their father, he is their protector. He’s a United States Marine.

American Flight 77 crashed into Pentagon at 9:43 a.m. on that fateful day. All was confusion in Washington for at least the next hour, with order only gradually emerging from the chaos as various folks tried to work out what had happened, what help was needed where, and whether further attacks were on the way.

There were daycares near the Pentagon, including one located in a building 30 yards from that facility, fortunately on the opposite side from where the airplane struck. Children from these facilities were evacuated by those running those establishments, with help from other sources arriving only well after the fact. There was no group of 40 burly Marines racing into a distressed daycare center to snatch up toddlers and cribs, then forming a defensive ring around the tykes; instead, in the absence of outside assistance, those in charge of the kids fended as best they could for those in their care. For instance, at the Children’s World Learning Center at the Pentagon, the teachers sang nursery rhymes to their 138 young charges as they led them to safety.

Said Time of the situation that morning:

By 11 a.m., the streets in Washington were gridlocked with people trying to get out.

On the corner of Constitution Avenue and 14th Street, day-care workers from the Ronald Reagan Building clutched frightened toddlers into a tight bunch.

A scouring of news stories from the days immediately following 9/11 through the next few months uncovered no news accounts about a cadre of Marines rescuing children from a daycare center near the Pentagon, or indeed of members of any other branch of service snatching up kids and cribs then making a protective corral of the cribs and standing guard over it. This is not a story that would have gone unreported, because even if the Marines in question had kept their peace about their actions that day, the kids, the daycare workers, and the parents of the kids certainly wouldn’t have.

The tale about 40 Marines charging to the rescue (which began its online life in September 2008), possibly resulted from a mishearing, misunderstanding, or just plain exaggeration of the actions taken that day by Army colonel Dave Komar and his staff and rangers from the National Park Service to assist and protect those who had evacuated children from the Pentagon’s daycare facility. Seven park rangers were dispatched to assist the group of evacuees, reaching it at approximately noon. Once there, the park rangers set up a protective perimeter around the children and blocked one lane of westbound traffic on the George Washington Memorial Parkway to increase safety. They then persuaded the driver of an empty tour bus to help transport the kids to a Virginia Department of Transportation (DoT) facility where they could better watch over and care for the tots until parents came to claim their children.

The park rangers did not magically appear just as the youngsters needed to be moved from the threatened daycare (they joined up with the evacuated group a couple of hours after it reached the open field), nor did they cart heavy cribs full of kids out of a building, nor did they form a ring of cribs “like the covered wagons in the West” and then stand guard outside it to keep the children from getting loose. However, they were involved in protecting a group of children moved from a daycare after the attack, with this protection involving (at least at one point) the establishment of a protective perimeter around their small charges. It’s enough of a similarity to have potentially served as the kernel for the much embellished tale involving 40 Marines and a ring of baby cribs.

The most interesting story having to do with the Pentagon’s daycare facility that day wasn’t primarily about the children or even the evacuation, but one of the parents. That morning, Col. William Stoppel of the National Guard dropped his 9-month-old son at daycare, then continued on to his office in the Pentagon’s inner ring, where he was assigned to the Department of the Army’s G-1 Office processing promotion packets. News of the attacks in New York prompted this dad to want to check on his son, so at the time the plane hit the Pentagon, he was in the daycare facility on the other side of the building (and thus helped to move kids to the field spoken of earlier).

Unknown to him as he helped shepherd kids, Stoppel’s office had been one of those that sustained a direct hit. Many of his co-workers had perished in the attack, including the man with which he had shared a cubicle. Stoppel himself was presumed dead for the better part of the day.

2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

如果不是写它,不会想到这样平凡的一棵树,背后也有不少传奇。

 

 

年初收到朋友寄来的《武汉植物笔记》,插图以手绘为主,其中一种花紫色,果如葡萄,羽状复叶有锯齿:“咦,这不就是以前老家旁边的那棵树吗?”那时我才知道它的名字,楝树。

 

仰视楝树 by 蒋某人

 

1. 只怪南风吹紫雪

 

楝(Melia azedarach L.)是楝科楝属下的落叶乔木,又称苦楝。在《中国植物志》中,楝属有两种,另一种是川楝。而在《Flora of China》中则只保留了楝一种。

 

作为中药,“楝实”在最早的医书《神农本草经》中已有著录,位列下品,味苦寒,《本草图经》载其别名曰苦楝。奶奶告诉我,这种树叫苦朗果子(音译)树,大概也是果实苦的缘故。夏天炎热,不过有风的早晨很凉爽,角落里的楝树洒下一片浓荫,奶奶在树底下洗衣服,自来水哗啦哗啦地流。奶奶说,果子很苦,可不能吃喔。我觉得它风干后的样子很像话梅,冬天树叶落光,话梅还挂在树上,一定是馋了。但我还是听奶奶的话没去尝。

 

干枯的楝实很像话梅 by Roger Culos ①

 

 

这苦郎果子还有个很好听的名字,叫金铃子,和悬铃木一样妙,宋苏颂《本草图经》载:

 

楝实即金玲子也,生荆山山谷,今处处有之,以蜀川者为佳。木高丈余,叶密如槐而长。三四月开花,红紫色,芬香满庭间。实如弹丸,生青熟黄,十二月采实,其根采无时。[2]

 

冬季,满树黄色的楝实,鸟喜欢吃,人不能吃 by 蒋某人

 

黄河以南各省区,楝树还较为常见,再往北,比如北京是没有的。今年春天回武汉特地找了一下楝树,舅舅家的农庄,爷爷商亭门口正好就有,应该是特地种下取其香味的。那时楝树正值花期,芳香扑鼻,一点不输于樟,真可谓“芬香满庭间”,那香味让我想到宋代诗人李次渊的一首诗《乾溪铺》:

 

芦芽抽尽柳花黄,水满田头未插秧。

客里不知春事晚,举头惊见楝花香。

 

紫色楝花 by 蒋某人、Alpsdake ②

 

“什么花,这样香?”我也几乎是惊见!然后仔细看了下它的花,五枚花瓣白色平展开来,中间是紫色的雄蕊管,上面有黄色的花药。单个花朵虽小,但整个圆锥花序一同绽放,满树皆是,密密麻麻,是以古诗中常将它比作雪,比如王安石《钟山晚步》“小雨轻风落楝花,细红如雪点平沙”,杨万里《浅夏独行奉新县圃》“只怪南风吹紫雪,不知屋角楝花飞”,想一想都挺美。

 

2. 犹堪缠黍吊沉湘

 

不过,上文让诗人“惊见”的恐怕不是楝花的香味,而是匆匆流逝的时光。唐宋时江南有“二十四番花信风”之说,以小寒到谷雨间的八个节气,对应二十四候,梅花为始,楝花为终,“谷雨一候牡丹,二候酴醿,三候楝花,楝花竟则立夏。”[3]

 

所以,与荼蘼(一种蔷薇)一样,楝花也多用来指示逝者如斯、春光已老,所谓“客里不知春事晚”。古诗里写楝花的,也常将其作为春夏之交的节点,如宋张蕴《楝花》“江南四月无风信,青草前头蝶思狂”,元朱希晦《寄友》“门前桃李都飞尽,又见春光到楝花”。

 

楝花 by 蒋某人

 

关于楝树还有不少传说。楝实是凤凰和獬豸(xiè zhì,独角神兽)的食物,但是水底的蛟龙却是怕它的,所以《荆楚岁时记》载,夏至时食粽,将楝叶插在粽子上,系之以五彩绳,投入江中可以“辟水厄”,即免于溺水之祸。[4] 想起儿时生活在江边,河湖众多,几乎每年夏天都有小孩因贪玩下水丢了性命,如果是在江里,恐怕连尸首都找不到,所以家里的长辈是严禁我们到河里玩水的。古人特地祈求“辟水厄”,会不会也与此有关?那时,女孩儿们也把楝叶插在头上,在手臂上缠上彩绳,称之为长命缕。

 

楝,图自《本草图汇》

 

既然蛟龙畏楝,所以民间在祭祀三闾大夫屈原时,也会在粽子上插上楝叶再扔到江中,以免为蛟龙所窃。[5] 上文宋张蕴《楝花》诗的前两句“绿树菲菲紫白香,犹堪缠黍(粽子)吊沉湘”,就用到了这个典故。事实上,楝叶确实有毒,其鲜叶可灭钉螺和作农药[6]。

 

独水底的蛟龙怕楝,连深山的猛虎也不敢靠近,《无锡县志》载:

 

许舍山中多虎,童男女昼不出户。尤待制叔保居之,使人拾楝树子数十斛,作大绳,以楝子置绳股中,埋于山之四围。不四五年,楝大成城,土人遂呼为楝城,乃作四门,时其启闭,虎不敢入。[7]

 

这是北宋的故事,主人公尤叔保于天禧年间迁入吴地,成为当地尤氏始祖[8],与始祖有关的记载,可能掺入了不少传说的成分,但文中“不四五年,楝大成城”却并非虚言,《齐民要术》:“以楝子于平地耕熟作垄种之,其长甚疾,五年后可作大椽。北方人家,欲构堂阁,先于三五年前种之。其堂阁欲成,则楝木可椽。”椽是屋顶上用于承受望板及瓦片重量的木条。可见在魏晋时,黄河流域已种植楝树来建造房屋,楝树也的确是建筑、器物之良材[9]。

 

不过我从未见过遍植楝树来盖房屋的,我在印象中,它不过是家旁边一株野生的杂树罢了,如果不是写它,不会想到这样平凡的一棵树,背后也有不少传奇。

 

楝,图自《本草图谱》

 

 

 


[1] 《中国植物志》:“楝:子房5-6室;果较小,长通常不超过2厘米,小叶具钝齿;花序常与叶等长。川楝:子房6-8室;果较大,长约3厘米;小叶近全缘或具不明显的钝齿;花序长约为叶的一半。”见//frps.iplant.cn/frps/Melia。

[2] 转引自(清)吴其濬《植物名实图考长编》,中华书局,2018年,第1113页。

[3] 明初王逵《蠡海集·气候类》:“一月二气六候,自小寒至谷雨,凡四月八气二十四候。每候五日,以一花之风信应之,世所异言,曰始于梅花,终于楝花也。详而言之,小寒之一候梅花,二候山茶,三候水仙;大寒之一候瑞香,二候兰花,三候山矾;立春之一候迎春,二候樱桃,三候望春;雨水一候菜花,二候杏花,三候李花;惊蛰一候桃花,二候棣棠,三候蔷薇;春分一候海棠,二候梨花,三候木兰;清明一候桐花,二候麦花,三候柳花,谷雨一候牡丹,二候酴醿,三候楝花。花竟则立夏矣。”清代类书《广群芳谱》引《岁时杂记》亦载,内容基本一致,只是“棣棠”为“棠梨”,最后一句为“楝花竟则立夏”。

[4] (梁)宗懍著,(隋)杜公瞻:《荆楚岁时记》,中华书局,2018年,第52页:“民斩新竹笋为筒粽,楝叶插头,五彩缕投江,以为辟水厄(溺死之灾)。士女或取楝叶插头,彩丝系臂,谓为长命缕。”

[5] 《荆楚岁时记》第52页:“屈原以夏至赴湘流,百姓竞以食祭之。常苦为蛟龙所窃,以五色丝合楝叶缚之。又以为獬豸食楝,将以言其志。”转引自《尔雅翼》卷十八。

[6] 《中国植物志》://frps.iplant.cn/frps?id=楝。

[7] 转引自《植物名实图考长编》,第1112页。按,原文“尤行制叔保”当为“尤待制叔保”,“待制”乃唐置官名,选京官五品以上,更宿中书、门下省,以备咨询政事,宋代因袭。

[8] “尤叔保,字碧岩,宋天禧二年入吴,是为迁吴始祖赠待制公。尤保叔长子尤大成,字有终,赠少师,后迁无锡许舍山,是为尤氏迁锡始祖……”见凌郁之《苏州文化世家与清代文学》,济南:齐鲁书社,2008年,第190页。

[9] 《中国植物志》:“边材黄白色,心材黄色至红褐色,纹理粗而美,质轻软,有光泽,施工易,是家具、建筑、农具、舟车、乐器等良好用材。”见//frps.iplant.cn/frps/Melia%20azedarach。

 

①By Roger Culos – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=43069125

②By Alpsdake – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=19657008

 

 

 

作者简介:江汉汤汤,企业职员 / 中国美术馆志愿者讲解员 / 自由撰稿人,个人公众号“古典植物园”,现居北京。

图文编辑:蒋某人

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.zh

转载请务必保留以上声明


 

 

2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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问荆是一类蕨类,属于木贼科、木贼属。它分布很广,尤其是夏季,在路边荒地上常能看到这样一丛丛、乱糟糟的绿草

问荆是一类蕨类,属于木贼科、木贼属。它分布很广,尤其是夏季,在路边荒地上常能看到这样一丛丛、乱糟糟的绿草。


问荆 Equisetum arvense

图1 Zeynel Cebeci 

细看就能发现它的神奇之处:枝条上没有明显的叶片,光溜溜的;枝条分节,节间规则的分出一轮轮小枝。


时间再往前几个月,问荆会以另一种形态展示在我们面前。这种触手状的物体,是问荆的繁殖枝。繁殖枝顶端生长着孢子穗,形态奇妙。


与绿油油的营养枝不同,繁殖枝叶绿体很少,所以表面呈现出藕色。

在北方,问荆繁殖枝与营养枝同时出现在地面上的时间很短。早春时节,地上钻出片片问荆触手,而周围还是一片光秃秃的黑土,实在是一幅诡异的光景。

繁殖枝春天生长,春末枯萎;营养枝春末生长,秋季枯萎。两种地上茎形态交替出现,而地下的部分则长久存在,地下茎很难根除,于是问荆成了让农人十分头大的顽强杂草。


草问荆 Equisetum pratense

如果尝试用手去拔问荆,会感到植物表面有砂纸一般的触感,这是由于植物体表面有较多的二氧化硅颗粒。因为这个特性,问荆曾经被古人用来打磨器皿和箭杆[1]

硅虽然是地壳中含量最高的几种元素之一,但在地球生命体内含量却非常少。而问荆体内的硅含量远远超出了一般水平,从根、茎、叶到孢子的所有器官中都有二氧化硅沉积,因此它也被称为“生物硅化物 biosilicifiers”,在生命科学领域倍受关注。

↑木贼

问荆的同属亲戚,木贼和节节草也很常见。

从外形上看,木贼的主干分支很少,节节草则介于木贼和问荆之间;另外木贼和节节草都没有明显的二型枝现象,换言之,孢子穗直接长在绿油油的枝条上。


↑节节草

木贼在日本很多,很多人家都喜欢种。节节草在南方很多,路边的绿草丛里时不时就会窜出几根来。

[1]理查德·梅比《杂草的故事》

图1 Zeynel Cebeci [CC BY-SA 4.0]

作者:蒋某人

图片:蒋某人(除注明外)

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.zh

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2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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八月,植物园里的刺梨熟了。

八月,植物园里的刺梨熟了。


【 缫丝花 Rosa roxburghii 】 蔷薇科 >> 蔷薇属


虽然《中国植物志》说刺梨在安徽、浙江、福建等省份均有野生或栽培,但我并没有在这些地方的野外见过刺梨。野生刺梨主要还是分布在云南和贵州。


↑世园会里的大刺梨


尤其是在贵州,经政府大力推广种植,刺梨带动了百万农民增收致富。[1] 于是在北京世园会的贵州园里,还给刺梨立了几个大雕塑。


↑扁而带刺的果实

大规模栽培刺梨,主要是用来做食品。乍一看,刺梨绝不像一个能吃的东西:表面遍布尖刺,像是缩小版的榴莲。但这个东西确实能吃,吃法跟金樱子差不多,一般做蜜饯干果,或者是泡茶泡酒。一些资料还宣称,刺梨的维生素C含量在水果中名列前茅,是VC之王。

我今年去云南时终于见到了野生刺梨,那自然是要尝一尝的。结果,好不容易把果实上长的刺给去掉,刚试探性的咬下去,门牙就磕到了核… 后来一想,这大概是前一年留存至今的果实。

刺梨的花朵是相当美丽的。所以更多时候,人们栽培刺梨不是为了食用,而是为了观赏。它的另一个名字叫缫丝花,缫(骚)丝,指将蚕丝从蚕茧中抽出的工艺。这个名字出自《植物名实图考》,书中是这么解释的:

缫丝花一名刺蘼,叶圆而青,花俨如玫瑰,色浅紫而无香;枝萼皆有刺针,每逢煮茧缫丝时花始开放,故有此名。二月中根可分栽。

原来,“缫丝”说的不是花蕊似丝,而是说每年煮茧抽丝的时节,恰好缫丝花开。

野生缫丝花一般都是单瓣儿。花朵中央,柱头浅浅的露出来。有意思的是,四周的雄蕊都“往后退了一步”,在柱头周围留出了一个圆环状的空白地带。


↑图自《本草图汇》

而观赏品种大都是重瓣的,花瓣众多,像极了玫瑰和月季。


↑重瓣缫丝花,By T.Kiya [2] 

↑花萼,子房上的尖刺暴露了它的身份 ,By Salicyna [3]


若是不翻过花来,看子房和花萼上密布的尖刺,还真难以辨认缫丝花的真实身份。



[1]《贵州155万亩刺梨带动百万农民增收致富》贵州省人民政府网

[2] By T.Kiya //www.flickr.com/photos/cq-biker/13064312153

[3] By Salicyna //commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rosa_roxburghii_2016-05-31_1482.jpg

作者:蒋某人

图片:蒋某人(除注明外)

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.zh

转载请务必保留以上声明


2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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从高原回到北京已经几天了。虽然气温不高,但闷热异常。如果说什么能把我吸引出门,那只有山上的繁花

从高原回到北京已经几天了。虽然气温不高,但闷热异常,如果说什么能把我吸引出门,那就只有高山和繁花 —— 北京山上的金莲花应该开的正好吧。

【 金莲花 Trollius chinensis 】毛茛科 >> 金莲花属


金莲花主要分布于北方草原上,像是承德、内蒙、大兴安岭等地,这回在西藏也有见到。而北京周边的高山草甸上,由于海拔高,气候冷凉的关系,很多塞外草原上常见的植物也在此繁衍。

乾隆《金莲花图》,图片来自网络

皇帝们在夏季也会往山上跑,避暑。乾隆就曾被金莲花触动,提御笔作画一副。并自题云:“金莲花发映阶新,着雨清妍不染尘。此是祗陀园里地,故应长者布来匀。香山金莲花盛开,玩芳得句,兼为写生。甲寅清和月下浣之三日制于来青轩。

只是如今去香山,很难再看到画中的景和花了。香山上并没有野生的金莲花,乾隆皇帝所描绘的这几株,不知道是从哪里移栽回来的。


如画中所见,金莲花叶片呈掌状,植株很高,花茎细细长长。而真到了水草丰茂的草甸上,高如金莲花也只能够冒出个头来。金黄的花朵浮于草海之上,山风轻轻吹便止不住地摇曳。


金莲花的花朵很特别。我们知道,毛茛科的很多植物都没有花瓣,仅有花萼。而金莲花则是保留了花瓣的一类。

从侧面看,那些向上的、细长的,像是跃动地炉火的,便是他的花瓣了。稍短的自然是花蕊,而外侧包裹着的、宽大的,其实是花萼。细长花瓣的基部具有蜜槽,用于吸引昆虫。


毛茛科植物的花瓣常常会特化成蜜腺(或假蜜腺)。金莲花属的其它一些种在这条路上走的更远,像这种的花瓣已经变成了小蜜珠的模样,闪烁着诱人的光泽。


↑可能是小金莲花 Trollius pumilus

真想出去爬个山呀,可怎么又要周一了呢。




作者:蒋某人

图片:蒋某人(除注明外)

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.zh

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2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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到火龙果开花结果的时候了,一起去火龙果园逛逛吗?

作者简介:一手画笔一手花:园林专业,从小深爱植物与自然,期待能一直从事植物相关工作,世间唯有美花与美食不可辜负,微博@一手画笔一手花

到火龙果开花结果的时候了,一起去火龙果园逛逛吗?


火龙果,是仙人掌科量天尺属的植物,平日里常吃的水果,有白心和红心的,买到好吃的则甜而多汁,运气不好便淡而无味。红心的口感更好也更贵,花青素丰富,染色能力超强,吃一个,便可获得独一无二的红心火龙果色号口红,并且有很大的几率see you tomorrow。


↑红心火龙果

在火龙果园里,张牙舞爪的枝条上挂满了花果,花朵收拢着低垂着头,白日里是安静低调的,与同科的昙花一样,要到晚上才开始它们的疯狂。尽管如此,仍有无数蚂蚁进进出出,忙碌着,采蜜偷香。穿着红衣的火龙果格外惹人,让我禁不住想掀开衣角,看你白肌还是红颜。


↑等到晚上才会开花

老板送了几朵花给我拿回家,留一些插瓶等着晚上绽放,一些立马下锅煮汤一饱口福。汤汁浓稠清甜,火龙果花滋味独特,入口滑溜溜,咀嚼爽嫩柔,令人上瘾,回味无穷。


↑用老板送的花煮了汤

黑幕落,白衣舞。火龙果花慢慢绽放,与昙花几分相像。越开越大朵,可以遮过脸,花瓣洁白柔嫩,冰肌玉肤不过如此。密密花蕊金灿灿,宛若星辰,怀抱宝藏。屡屡幽香渐渐浓,不知不觉间,整个屋子里都是它沁人心脾的香味,浸于花香怀抱,让人沉醉不已。

↑晚上盛开啦


花能一直开到第二天清晨,等到小蜜蜂也来分一杯羹。


↑能开到次日清晨


美丽绽放过后,当然都是进了肚子里,漂亮幽香还好吃,火龙果花,怎能让人不爱呢?

作者:一手画笔一手花

图片:一手画笔一手

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.zh

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2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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参差荇菜,左右流之

提到荇菜,我们总能想起诗经中的名句:“参差荇菜,左右流之。窈窕淑女,寤寐求之。”生荇菜实在难得一见,求之不得。直到这周末我才第一次见到它们,在广阔的内蒙古高原上。

【 荇菜 Nymphoides peltata 】睡菜科 >> 荇菜属


荇菜又写作莕菜,旧分类系统中属于龙胆科,现在则被归入睡菜科。

内蒙高原的荇菜正值盛花期。在南方的植物园里,荇菜花期在五月末,入夏就会凋谢。而北京植物园的荇菜,花期能从六月持续到十月,相当持久。内蒙高原上的荇菜花事,大概也能持续到入秋吧。


↑ 六月初在南京拍的荇菜,花期已经要结束了

《中国植物志》说:荇菜产全国绝大多数省区。生于池塘或不甚流动的河溪中… 我在草原上发现的荇菜,也都是长在看起来随时会干枯的小水洼里。稍大的“淖”(读“孬”,指湖泊)和溪流中,都看不到荇菜的身影。

↑8月摄于内蒙


但《诗经》里是这么写:参差荇菜,左右流之…看来此处的“流”字,不应当是形容河流、水流,或者说荇菜“随波逐流”,而是另有其含义。

遂查询资料:流,同“求”。原来流在这里是个动词,表示求、求取,这就解释的通了。


↑《诗经名物图解》中的荇菜

古人采摘荇菜干嘛呢?自然是当菜吃。《毛诗陆疏广要》中说:“丛生水中,叶圆,在茎端,长短随水深浅,江东食之,亦呼为莕。[1]

荇菜的食用部分是茎和叶,叶片看起来与睡莲有相似。古人还会将荇菜与莼菜弄混,比如《本草纲目》里就这么写:“莕与莼,一类二种也…” 其实,莼菜叶片是一个标准椭圆形,叶片背面和叶柄上还有滑腻粘液,与荇菜很好区分。


现在的人很少吃荇菜了,大概是由于口味不佳,至少跟莼菜肯定是没法比的。而且野生荇菜也很难见到了,想吃都没地儿采。

↑上图荇菜,下图莼菜

现在的荇菜主要做观赏用。虽然这么说,但除了植物园外,城市园林中还鲜有种植。

荇菜在适宜环境中的繁殖能力其实很强,到了花期,黄色花朵星星点点,洒满水面,相当美观。花朵5瓣儿,黄色,乍一看有点像南瓜花。不过荇菜的花瓣边缘有不规则的细齿,看起来毛茸茸的,很特别。

↑荇菜的花

[1] //zh.wikisource.org/zh-hans/毛詩陸疏廣要_(四庫全書本)/卷上之上


作者:蒋某人

图片:蒋某人(除注明外)

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.zh

转载请务必保留以上声明


2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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一到夏天,早市花店的门口就摆满了茉莉,雪白的花骨朵缀满枝头。

 

一到夏天,早市花店的门口就摆满了茉莉,雪白的花骨朵缀满枝头,俯身闻到熟悉的香味,想起某年暑假在县城老街的花店买过一盆,父母把它照顾得很好。江城多雨的夏天,一场暴雨过后,茉莉喝足了雨水,洗得干干净净的叶片反射出天光;等到乡间的暮色升起,四野寂静,雪白肥厚的花苞盛开,看到它,闻到香味,妈妈会忍不住说,真香啊!白日的疲倦也似乎聊以舒缓。

 

 

1.茉莉从何而来

 

茉莉是我顶喜欢的花,在亲眼见到它之前,就已从父亲唱过的歌里知道它的大名:

 

好一朵茉莉花,好一朵茉莉花。满园花开,香也香不过它。我有心采一朵戴,又怕旁人笑话……

 

这首国际知名的江苏民歌源自清代扬州民间的鲜花调,在我印象中,“芬芳美丽满枝桠,又香又白人人夸”的茉莉,就该属于吴侬软语的江南。

 

但茉莉并非原产我国,唐代学者段公路所著岭南风物志《北户录》在记载指甲花时提到:“恙弭花、白茉莉花(红者不香),皆波斯移植夏中。”[1] 不过茉莉的原产地是今天的印度,它在古籍中又名抹厉、抹利、没利、末丽,皆从梵文mallikā音译而来[2]。早在佛教出现之前,印度人就将茉莉等鲜花用线穿起来,戴在头上或者挂在身上作为装饰,人称 “华鬘[mán]”;佛教兴起后,华鬘用于礼佛,“今泰国、菲律宾等东南亚国家,仍有将茉莉花环供奉于佛像前的习俗”[3]。

 

茉莉花环,蒋某人摄于泰国市场

 

一般认为茉莉早在西汉已传入我国,其依据是西晋稽含(263-306)的《南方草木状》:

 

耶悉茗花、末利花,皆胡人自西国移植于南海,南人怜其芳香,竞植之。陆贾《南越行纪》曰:“南越之境,五谷无味,百花不香,此二花特芳香者,缘自别国移至,不随水土而变,与夫橘北为枳异矣。彼之女子,以彩丝穿花心,以为首饰。”[4]

 

文中提到的陆贾是西汉初年的一名外交官,汉武帝和汉文帝时分别出使南越。但无论是《南方草木状》还是《南越行纪》,其真实性都值得怀疑。近代著名农史学家缪启愉先生考证:“《南方草木状》并非稽含之书,而是后人根据类书及其他文献编造的,其时代当在南宋时。”[5]而《南越行纪》未见于史志著录,亦无传本,美国学者劳费尔《中国伊朗编》(1919)就不太相信:“在陆贾的时代这两种外国植物不可能从海路运到华南;如果陆贾真的写了这段文章,那他心里想的也一定是另外两种植物。”[6]

 

因此,若要根据《南方草木状》来判断茉莉的传入时间,还要打个问号。但可以肯定的是,至迟在唐代茉莉已从西域传入,很可能不止一种。从文献上来看,除了段公路的《北户录》提到“白茉莉”之外,其父亲段成式《酉阳杂俎》中还提到一种名叫野悉蜜的植物,这是茉莉阿拉伯语名称yās(a)min的音译名,其英文名Jasmine也是从阿拉伯语来的。《本草纲目》认为野悉蜜是茉莉的近亲素馨,与茉莉一样皆由西域传入。现代植物分类学将茉莉归于木犀科素馨属。

 

茉莉花

素馨两种

以上两图自(日)岩崎灌园:《本草图谱》,1828年,日本国立国会图书馆藏本

 

2.养护、薰茶与消暑

 

茉莉虽然在唐代已传入中国,但唐代文献中关于茉莉的记载并不多,在清人搜集整理的植物方面的类书《广群芳谱》中,几乎都是宋以后的诗文,可能茉莉在唐代并未普及。

 

对此,一种解释是说茉莉性不耐寒,极难养护,不适合在北地种植。北宋张邦基《墨庄漫录》写茉莉时就强调了这一点:“经霜雪则多死”。《广群芳谱》关于茉莉的养护方法中,大部分是关于如何避寒的。刚工作的那年夏天,曾在永定门外早市上买过一盆茉莉,到冬天就死去,现在知道那盆茉莉一定是冻死的。

 

 

茉莉不仅怕寒,还不耐贫。《丹铅录》介绍茉莉的栽培方法时说得很详细:需“壅以鸡粪”,用烫过猪、鸡、鹅的水,或者淘米水来浇灌,如此则开花不绝,所谓“清兰花,浊茉莉。”于是我知道为什么家里的那盆茉莉养得那么好了,父亲在花盆里铺了一层榨油剩下来的残渣,那可是上好的肥料。

 

 

由于性不耐寒,茉莉传入我国后在温暖的南国安了家,广东、广西、福建等省份多有种之。北宋张邦基《墨庄漫录》写茉莉,不吝赞美,誉其为闽、广地区众花之冠:

 

闽、广多异花,悉清芬郁烈,而末利花为众花之冠。岭外人或云“抹丽”,谓能掩众花也,至暮则尤香。今闽人以陶盎种之,转海而来,浙中人家以为嘉玩。[7]

 

文中提到福建人用陶盎(陶制酒器)来种茉莉,很是讲究。到19世纪50年代,福建成为茉莉花茶的生产中心,产品远销全国。这种花茶的香味全靠新鲜的茉莉窨[xūn]制数次而成,窨一遍需好几道工艺,次数越多,难度和成本就会越高,高级的茉莉花茶会窨制七到九次甚至更多,难怪可以卖得那么贵。

 

茉莉花采摘 《人民画报》1963年12月

 

茉莉薰茶的历史可追溯至南宋,关于茉莉的记载在宋代文献中也突然多了起来,朝野上下皆爱之。宋徽宗在开封营建皇家园林“艮岳”,茉莉乃八种芳草之一。[8]北宋灭亡后,都城南移至临安,1162年宋孝宗即位,南宋进入相对繁荣的历史时期,史称“乾淳之治”。

 

周密《武林旧事》载乾淳年间禁中避暑,办法很夸张,其中一项是:

 

“置茉莉、素馨……等南花数百盆于广庭,鼓以风轮,清芬满殿。”[9]

 

帝王避暑用到茉莉,百姓亦如是。周密在有关“都人避暑”的描述中提到:

 

关扑香囊、画扇、涎花、朱佩,而茉莉为最盛。初出之时,其价甚穹,妇人簇带多至七插。所直数十券,不过供一饷之娱耳。[10]

 

“关扑”是宋元时期广泛流行的商业活动,本质上是一种赌博游戏,顾客和店家约好价格,掷铜钱,以其正反面的朝向或字样之组合来判定输赢,赢可取物,输则付钱。[11]从这则文献可知,在关扑的游戏中,虽然茉莉价格甚高,但依然很受欢迎。人们相信茉莉能消暑,如南宋刘克庄《茉莉》里写的:“一卉能熏一室香,炎天犹觉玉肌凉。野人不敢烦天女,自折琼枝置枕傍。

 

 

3.茉莉何以成了淫葩妖草

 

茉莉属于夏天,不同地域不同身份的女子都喜欢把它插在头上,东坡诗云“暗麝着人簪茉莉,红潮登颊醉槟榔”,写的是岭南的黎族女子;杨巽斋“谁家浴罢临妆女,爱把闲花插满头”写的是寻常人家;《武林旧事》记载,酒楼里的私妓也多在夏月茉莉盈头,凭槛招邀。[12]

 

可到了清代,茉莉却因此遭来恶名,清初文学家余怀(1616~1696)《板桥杂记》中写少年高声唱卖茉莉,娇婢卷帘摊钱争买,接着评论到:

 

盖此花苞于日中,开于枕上,真媚夜之淫葩,殢人之妖草也。建兰则大雅不群,宜于纱㡡文榭,与佛手、木瓜,同其静好。酒兵茗战之余,微闻芗泽,所谓王者之香,湘君之佩,岂淫葩妖草所可比缀乎![13]

 

《板桥杂记》主要记载明末秦淮长板桥一带有关旧院名妓的见闻,争买茉莉的也许正是这些青楼女子,白日插花于发髻,夜间花开于枕上,难怪要说它是“淫葩妖草”。清代植物学家吴其濬估计受此影响,其《植物名实图考》称:“此草花虽芬馥,而茎叶皆无气味。又其根磨汁,可以迷人,未可与芷、兰为伍。退入群芳,只供簪髻。”[14]如果汪曾祺看到,肯定要为茉莉鸣不平。[15]

 

 

前述北宋张邦基《墨庄漫录》写茉莉时,引颜博文咏茉莉诗,称观其诗则“花之清淑柔婉,风味不见可知”。“清淑柔婉”是个多好的词,等到了“淫葩妖草”,真是一落千丈。植物背后的品格都是人赋予的,不同的人,想法千差万别,很有意思。

 

但我还是觉得“清淑柔婉”更适合茉莉,曹雪芹恐怕也是这么觉得的。记得《红楼梦》第三十八回有个细节写到茉莉,那日湘云招待众人吃螃蟹,黛玉倚栏杆坐着钓鱼,宝钗拿着桂花掐了桂蕊扔到水里,探春、李纨、惜春立在垂柳阴中看鸥鹭,只有迎春,“又独在花阴下拿着花针穿茉莉花”。

 

这样的举动和场景,多么符合迎春的性格。这个被称为二木头、温柔善良、与世无争、结局却悲惨的贾家二小姐,想起来真叫人怜惜。

 

 


[1](明)陆楫编:《古今说海·北户录》,成都:巴蜀书社,1996年,第162页。

[2] 《本草纲目·草部卷十四·草之三·茉莉》:“时珍曰∶稽含《草木状》作末利,《洛阳名园记》作抹厉,《佛经》作抹利,《王龟龄集》作没利,《洪迈集》作末丽。盖末利本胡语,无正字,随人会意而已。韦君呼为狎客,张敏叔呼为远客。杨慎《丹铅录》云∶《晋书》都人簪柰花,即今末利花也。”

[3] 刘家兴、刘永连:《“素馨”考辨》,《暨南史学》,第11辑,2015年,第75页。

[4] 吴玉贵,华飞主编:《四库全书精品文存27·南方草木状》,北京:团结出版社,1997年,第3页。

[5] 缪启愉:《<南方草木状>的诸伪迹》,《中国农史》,1984年03期,第12页。据缪启愉先生介绍,《南方草木状》主要参考的古书有《艺文类聚》、《北户录》、唐末刘恂《岭表录异》、《太平御览》、《证类本草》等,也有《尔雅》郭璞注和《法苑珠林》。其利用前述编缀成文的迹象,主要有五种情况:综合、全抄、摘抄、承误、增饰。以上见该文第3页。

[6] (美)劳费尔著,林筠因译:《中国伊朗编》,北京:商务印书馆,2015年,第167页。

[7] (宋)张邦基《墨庄漫录》,中华书局,2002年版,198页。

[8] 《广群芳谱》引《丹铅总录》:“茉莉花见嵇含南方草木状,称其芳香酷烈,此花岭外海滨物,自宣和中名著,艮岳列芳草八,此居一焉,八芳者金蛾、玉蝉、虎耳、凤毛、素馨、渠那、茉莉、含笑也。”

[9] (宋)周密:《武林旧事·禁中纳凉》,北京:光明日报出版社,2016年,第61页。

[10] 《武林旧事·都人避暑》,第62页。

[11]  李平君:《博弈》,北京:中国社会出版社,2009年,第46-47页。

[12] 《武林旧事·酒楼》,第110页:“每处各有私名妓数十辈,皆时妆服,巧笑争妍。夏月茉莉盈头,春满绮陌。凭槛招邀,谓之‘卖客’。”

[13] (清)余怀著,薛冰点校:《板桥杂记》,南京出版社,2006年,第10页。

[14](清)吴其濬:《植物名实图考》,中华书局,2018年,第706页。

[15] 汪曾祺曾在散文《夏天》中为栀子花鸣不平:“(栀子花)极香,香气简直有点叫人受不了,我的家乡人说是‘碰鼻子香’。栀子花粗粗大大,又香得掸都掸不开,于是为文雅人不取,以为品格不高。栀子花说:‘去你妈的,我就是要这样香,香得痛痛快快,你们他妈的管得着吗?’”

 

 

作者简介:江汉汤汤,企业职员 / 中国美术馆志愿者讲解员 / 自由撰稿人,个人公众号“古典植物园”,现居北京。

图文编辑:蒋某人

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.zh

转载请务必保留以上声明


 

 

2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

酢浆草结果啦

酢(读“醋”)浆草相信大家已经很熟悉了,我们号也推送过好几篇相关的文章。但为什么今天又推一遍呢?因为酢浆草结果啦~


↑酢浆草果实

我们在城市中常见的,开红花的酢浆草是由美洲引入的关节酢浆草和红花酢浆草,来中国还不久,并不会结果。


↑会结果的酢浆草

会结果的主要是这种,开小黄花的 Oxalis corniculata 酢浆草本种。它分布很广,全国都可以见到。

↑随时可能爆炸


夏季,酢浆草的主要花期过后,叶丛中就会结出很多“易爆”的小火箭。


这些果实毛茸茸的,外形很像缩小版的秋葵。成熟后只要轻轻的触碰,就会崩裂出许多纵向裂口,细小的种子瞬间从裂口中弹射而出。


↑爆炸了

观察图片,我们可以发现白色、红色的两种物体。

其中红色的是种子,而白色的部分是假种皮,也就是酢浆草种子的弹射器。


↑酢浆草弹射原理

原理大概是这样的,起初假种皮饱含水分,但成熟后快速失水。


失水了体积就会收缩,一遇到外力,收缩积聚的能量疾速释放,假种皮向后快速反卷,像弹弓一样把种子弹射出去。


↑爆炸的视频,可以把声音开大一点

从酢浆草丛中走过,仔细听,噼里啪啦的声音不绝于耳。回到家,还能发现衣服上粘了一些种子。种子红色,扁扁的,表面上有很多横向纹理,不仔细看有点像小甲虫。

酢浆草值得深挖的地方还很多,除了我们提到过的几个,它的异型花柱现象也很有意思。不过我至今还没有拍到短花柱的酢浆草,以后有机会再跟大家介绍吧~


图自《本草图谱》



相关文章

酢浆草这么好看,为什么不种一些呢

红花酢浆草 | 即使是冬天,他也零星的开着

修竹花事 | 酢浆草


作者:蒋某人

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2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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最近准备整理一下自己都拍过哪些珍稀濒危物种。结果呢,虽说拍过不少种类,但叶花果等特征俱全的,只有厚朴一个。

最近准备整理一下自己都拍过哪些珍稀濒危物种。结果呢,虽说拍过不少种类,但叶花果等特征俱全的,只有厚朴一个。


↑盛开的厚朴

【 厚朴 Houpoea officinalis 】木兰科 >> 厚朴属


厚朴,属于木兰科厚朴属。在IUCN(国际自然保护联盟)的评级中,厚朴属于EN级(濒临灭绝);在我国拟定的《国家重点保护野生植物名录》中,属于 II 级保护。


↑早春的一片厚朴林

在浙江周边海拔较高的地方爬山时,总是能见到厚朴的。像是在清凉峰、钱江源、丽水等地的山村旁、疏林里,厚朴就很常见。


↑摄于钱江源国家公园旁

↑盛开的厚朴,摄于钱江源国家公园旁

近年来,厚朴的一个亚种凹叶厚朴,作为园林植物,被越来越广泛的栽培在了城市中,在浙大校园和杭州植物园里就能看到很多。


同水杉、银杏等濒危植物一样,希望凹叶厚朴也能在人们的帮助下,获得种群的长久延续。

↑熬夜厚朴。摄于浙大紫金港

厚朴,作为一种木兰,开花自然也是非常漂亮,不输各种玉兰。

每年4月中上旬,厚朴枝头吐露花蕾。它的花被片分两轮,外轮花被片略带红色,早早的就向外展开了。内轮花被片洁白柔软,看起来好像一颗美味的雪媚娘,勾起路人的食欲。

↑厚朴花

随着时间推移,内轮花被渐渐展开,新叶也随之一同舒展。7~9枚宽大的叶片和花朵一起聚生在枝条顶端,整体树型看起来相当美观。

此时观察叶片的先端,可以发现有些厚朴的叶片先端内凹,像羊蹄甲一样。这些就是厚朴的亚种凹叶厚朴了。


↑示意叶尖和果实

厚朴的花期将持续到五一前后。到了夏末,果实成熟了。这样一根像红色大玉米棒子似的东西就是了。同各种木兰一样,果实开裂后,红豆似的种子会一颗颗掉落。

↑以上两图为玉兰

如果我们对比玉兰和厚朴的花果,大概可以发现两个比较明显的差异:

大部分玉兰的内外轮花被片没有这样明显的差异、大部分玉兰的果实歪歪扭扭很不整齐。相反的,厚朴的内外轮花被片明显是两个样,且果实形状长的也更加规则。

一般认为,相对于玉兰,厚朴的花果特征是更加进化的表现,而玉兰的花果特征则更加原始。再比如蔷薇科的各种花朵有花瓣和花萼的明显区分,这又比厚朴更进了一步。

↑图自《本草图谱》

厚朴也是一种传统药用植物,药用部位为树皮。《说文》:“朴,木皮也。” 厚朴,说的就是它皮厚了。




作者:蒋某人

图片:蒋某人

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2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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六月初,跟着好友在西藏地区考察野生百合属资源

六月初,跟着好友在西藏地区考察野生百合属资源。从林芝出发,驱车上千公里,终于在澜沧江与金沙江之间发现了此行目标:尖被百合。


尖被百合学名 Lilium lophophorum ,属于百合属钟花组。不同于我们对百合花的一般映像,尖被百合花朵相当小巧,且花型十分奇特。


它的6枚花被片先端粘连,整朵花看起来就像个小圆灯笼。直到花期将尽时,花被才会分开。


花朵垂悬在笔直的花葶上,整体看去,与古时的长杆提灯如出一辙。柠檬黄的花色,给人一种很温暖柔和的感觉。


透过花被的间隙,中央的花蕊若隐若现。察“灯笼”内部,可以发现花被内侧有紫黑色斑点散布,花被基部还长有流苏状的突起。


尖被百合的花为何要长成灯笼般的样式呢?我并不能知晓。


站在这片盛开着百合的灌丛中,一场奇妙的演出在我的脑海里上演了:天黑后,许多鼠兔聚集了过来,它们立起身子,举起尖被百合,开始了一场盛大的灯会…




作者:蒋某人

图片:蒋某人

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2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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九月,海州常山迎来了第二次“花季”。

九月,海州常山迎来了第二次“花季”。


↑海州常山

【 海州常山 Clerodendrum trichotomum 】 唇形科 >> 大青属 


海州常山,大青属植物,原本属于马鞭草科,现归入唇形科。它分布很广,在杭州的郊野就随处可见,湿地里有,山沟溪涧里也有。不过我只在北京的园林绿化里见到过海州常山种植,数量还不少。


↑北京,一棵海州常山


映像最深的就是景山公园里的几株了,去年九月见到时正花开繁茂。远看去,花序下部呈红色,上部呈白色,形状和配色就像颗半熟的草莓。


走近看,红色“花朵”是花凋谢后的宿存花萼。其中一些花萼逐渐变成肉质并向后反折,恭敬地托出一枚蓝紫色珠子,这便是海州常山的果实了。

↑肉质红色宿存花萼,以及蓝紫色果实

白色部分是尚存的花朵,花开五瓣儿(花冠5裂),花心吐露五枚长而卷曲的花蕊,其中雄蕊四,雌蕊一。


↑海州常山花朵

随着时间推移,到了九月中旬,白色的花朵都会被红色的“花朵”取代。这就是我说的第二次“花季”,直到冬季树叶凋零时才会宣告落幕。


↑一棵野生的海州常山

相比之下,野外见到的海州常山一般就是一根独杆,被虫啃掉大半的三角状叶片对生在独杆上,看起来可怜兮兮的。一般长不了多高,也没多少花。


↑图自《本草图谱》

海州常山也是一种药用植物,其名称的意思应该是“长在海州的常山”。海州是古代地名,而关于“常山”是啥的问题,简直就是一笔糊涂账。“常山”属于虎耳草科,“臭常山”是芸香科植物,“鸡骨常山”属于夹竹桃科……

↑虎耳草科常山

↑芸香科臭常山




作者:蒋某人

图片:蒋某人(除注明外)

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2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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雨久花是我很喜欢的一个植物名

雨久花是我很喜欢的一个植物名。《中国植物志》,这一颇有诗意的名称出自康熙年间的《秘传花镜》,一本讲观赏动植物的书。

特意找来看了看,书里是这么描述雨久花的:

雨久花苗生水中,叶似茈菇,夏月开花,似牵牛而色深蓝。亦水藻中之不可少者。

词条概括了雨久花的叶型、花型花色、花期和生境,却也没有讲这一名字是如何来的。


↑图自《花镜》

现代植物分类学中,雨久花属于雨久花科雨久花属,学名 Monochoria korsakowii 大名鼎鼎的水葫芦是雨久花科的成员,南方常见的园林植物梭鱼草也是。

雨久花科植物们都是这样的水生植物。


↑雨久花

虽然《花镜》中说雨久花“水藻中之不可少者”,但在《秘传花镜》编者“西湖花隐翁”——陈淏子的家乡杭州,雨久花已经难觅踪影。至少我从来没有见过。前些年刚出版的《杭州植物志》中,也没有雨久花收录。

我只在北京植物园和北京的一些河道里见过它。据说北方的沼泽湿地、水稻田里还有雨久花生长。


↑雨久花叶

© 汪远


六瓣儿晶莹的蓝色花朵,配上明亮的花蕊,雨久花是相当美丽的。

细看花朵,也有许多特别之处。

它的雄蕊有两种形态,六枚雄蕊中的五枚是黄色,而一枚呈蓝色,个头也比其他的大上不少。

雌蕊相对不起眼,与蓝色大个儿雄蕊分属于花朵对称轴的两侧。


↑雨久花花蕊

在学植物学基础知识的时候我们会学到,植物花可以分为两侧对称和辐射对称两类。

显然雨久花就是个例外。就像人体一样,虽然大致上是对称的,但心脏长在左侧、肝脏长在右边…


↑雌蕊或是在对称轴左侧、或是在右侧

如雨久花这样花柱偏离中轴的植物并不多,目前仅在被子植物的雨久花科等11个科的部分种类中进行了报道。[1]


↑凋谢的雨久花

将要凋谢时,雨久花会把自己拧成麻花,同射干的花一样。

参考文献

[1]林玉, 谭敦炎, LINYu, et al. 被子植物镜像花柱及其进化意义[J]. 植物分类学报, 2007, 45(6):901-916.

作者:蒋某人

图片:蒋某人、汪远

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2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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夏秋之际,枸杞枝头逐渐结出了诱人红果。

夏秋之际,枸杞枝头逐渐结出了诱人红果。对于平时见惯了枸杞干的我们来说,初看到如此光泽饱满的果实时很容易产生怀疑:这真的是枸杞子吗?


↑枸杞干果实 ① By Didier Descouens 

↑枸杞鲜果实

【 枸杞 Lycium chinense 】茄科 >> 枸杞属


枸杞,茄科枸杞属,与我们常吃的番茄、辣椒是同科亲戚。所以如果直接摘下鲜果放入口中,能明显地品尝到一股辛辣味以及一种类似番茄的口味。


枸杞是一种分布广泛的植物,在南北方的城市里总是能见到枸杞的。

几年前在塘栖闲逛,在运河畔的黄素馨绿化带中第一次见到了野生枸杞。他的枝叶跟黄素馨相似度很高,若不是那星星点点的紫花,十分难以发现。

小花稀疏的缀在枝条上,细看竟也有不俗的姿色。5裂的花冠,雌、雄簇拥在花冠口,四周围绕着一圈白色短绒毛。


仔细观察,就能发现枸杞枝叶与黄素馨的差别。他的叶卵形,叶基部迅速收狭,叶片整体看起来像是一个汤匙。叶对生在枝条上,且枝条上有尖锐小刺。


在无人管理的荒地中枸杞更加常见。苏杭一带的平原湿地里,枸杞乱糟糟的混在路旁灌丛里。虽然枝条带刺,但不妨碍枸杞成为江南人民喜爱的野菜。每年春天都会看到采摘枸杞芽的人,据汪曾祺在《人间草木》中的描述:

采摘枸杞的嫩头,略焯过,切碎,与香干丁同拌,浇酱油醋香油;或入油锅爆炒,皆极清香。

今年春天,我在太湖边尝到了这种野菜,汪曾祺果然没有骗人。

↑清炒枸杞芽,图片来自于网络

又在北京恭王府见到了这么一丛枸杞,配植在假山石旁,低垂的枝条上挂了不少红果。

没想到在南方如同杂草的枸杞,也能在王公府邸中求得一个位置。

↑恭王府中的一棵枸杞

枸杞果实看起来真是相当诱人的,圆润、光泽,像一滴红色水滴。

恭王府中的枸杞大概是人为种植,但在圆明园中,枸杞已经肆意生长了不知道多少年。

不知道前朝的侍女、士兵和皇帝,会不会采集枸杞子呢。

↑图自《诗经名物图鉴》

①干果实 By Didier Descouens – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0


作者:蒋某人

图片:蒋某人(除注明外)

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2020年9月13日
发表者 minici
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一堆荒废的铁架子上,爬着落葵。

一堆荒废的铁架子上,爬着落葵


它长的如此繁茂,藤蔓上下翻飞,有些地方已经完全看不到锈色铁架。


藤上密集生长着一枝枝穗状花序,花朵呈粉白色,看起来肉肉的。花朵似乎一直都是这样的花苞状,不会打开。我去年盯着这丛落葵看了快半个小时,也没找到一朵花瓣张开的花朵。


九月下旬,落葵的果实熟了。它的果实与商陆有些相似,紫黑色,如果捏碎就会冒出很多汁液,颜色沾染在手上或是衣服上很难洗掉。


↑落葵果实

查了查资料,落葵是一种一年生植物。就是说冬天整个植株都要枯萎掉,来年再从头开始长。这项浩大的,只差一点就要完成的荒地绿化工程,难道要推倒重来吗?

想了想觉得很是遗憾。

但似乎,今年这丛落葵所覆盖的面积,是要比去年大的。又或许只是我一厢情愿的希望,希望生命的努力都不会白费。


↑落葵花朵

落葵学名 Basella alba ,是落葵科落葵属植物。它其实有个更加广为人知的名字,就是木耳菜。


这种植物的绿色叶子肉质,胖乎乎,看起来还真像绿色的木耳。吃起来口感也是滑溜溜的。

↑落葵叶片

与通俗易懂的“木耳菜”相对的,是一个颇具古意的名字——“蘩露”。

《尔雅》曰:“落葵,蘩露也”,《注》云:“其叶最能承露,其子垂垂如缀露,故名…”[1]

虽然我没在秋天的早晨去看过这丛落葵,但它叶片上缀满露珠、藤上挂满紫黑珠子的画面已经出现在我眼前了。

↑图自《本草图汇》

参考资料

[1]植物名释札记,夏纬瑛 

作者:蒋某人

图片:蒋某人(除注明外)

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