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2020年12月15日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

吉尔·拜登是医生吗?

对于那些拥有博士学位的人来说,使用标题 “博士” 并不罕见。

【宣称】

吉尔·拜登博士不是医生,因此错误地使用了 “博士”

【结论】

混合

【原文】

Following the contentious 2020 presidential contest between Republican incumbent U.S. President Donald Trump and his opponent, former Vice President Joe Biden, the victory of the latter politician sparked a new wave of political misinformation and smear campaigns on the internet. 

Among such coverage was the argument that future first lady Dr. Jill Biden should nix her prefix because she is not a medical doctor, nor did she receive a medical degree. The first lady-elect is referred to as “Dr. Jill Biden” in news releases issued from the president-elect’s office and also has the title on her official Twitter and Facebook profiles. 

The question of whether the first lady-elect was a doctor came after a Dec. 11, 2020, opinion piece was published in The Wall Street Journal titled, “Is There a Doctor in the White House? Not if You Need an M.D.” In the article, former Northwestern University lecturer Joseph Epstein — who had not taught at the university since 2003 — referred to the future FOTUS as “kiddo,” and said that her honorific title felt “fraudulent” and comic.” The piece went on to say:

Madame First Lady—Mrs. Biden—Jill—kiddo: a bit of advice on what may seem like a small but I think is a not unimportant matter. Any chance you might drop the “Dr.” before your name? “Dr. Jill Biden” sounds and feels fraudulent, not to say a touch comic.

[…]

A wise man once said that no one should call himself “Dr.” unless he has delivered a child. Think about it, Dr. Jill, and forthwith drop the doc.

Subsequent coverage of the opinion piece was covered in a number of news publications, from The New York Times to Fox News.

It is true that Biden is not a medical doctor nor did she receive a degree in medicine. However, the future first lady received two master’s degrees from West Chester University and Villanova University, as well as a doctorate in education from the University of Delaware in January 2007 — an academic accomplishment that warrants the prefix of “Dr.”

A doctorate of education is a professional degree for practitioners interested in educational leadership roles that differ from a doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.) in education. An Ed.D. is designed for those wishing to pursue research and teaching roles, according to the private research institute Northeastern University in Boston. Those with an Ed.D. typically work in higher education as administrators or executives in a practice-based leadership role. Biden worked as an educator at a psychiatric hospital in the 1980s, and taught as an English professor at Northern Virginia Community College.

The question of who is entitled to affix the “Dr.” preface before their name is largely a matter of opinion. But as a general practice, it is acceptable for those with doctorate degrees to refer to themselves as a doctor. At news organizations like Snopes, for example, we follow Associated Press style guidelines, which dictate that only medical doctors are referred to as “Dr.”

In a statement released on Dec. 12, Northwestern University condemned the opinions expressed in the Wall Street Journal article.

“While we firmly support academic freedom and freedom of expression, we do not agree with Mr. Epstein’s opinion and believe the designation of doctor is well deserved by anyone who has earned a Ph.D., an Ed.D. or an M.D.,” wrote the university. “Northwestern is firmly committed to equity, diversity and inclusion, and strongly disagrees with Mr. Epstein’s misogynistic views.”

The English department at the university also furthered that Epstein was a former adjunct professor who had not taught within the department in nearly 20 years, adding that his written piece “casts unmerited aspersion on Dr. Jill Biden’s rightful public claiming of her doctoral credentials and expertise.”

“The Department rejects this opinion as well as the diminishment of anyone’s duly-earned degrees in any field, from any university,” wrote the department on its website.

2020年12月15日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

阿道夫·希特勒在 1938 年被《时代杂志》评为 “年度最佳人” 吗?

时代对年度人物的选择往往是有争议的。

【宣称】

阿道夫·希特勒于 1938 年被《时代》杂志评为 “年度人类”。

【结论】


【原文】

A meme stating that Adolf Hitler was named “Man of the Year” by Time magazine in 1938 has been frequently shared on social media as evidence that the “mainstream media is not always reliable.”

It is undeniably true that Time dubbed the Nazi leader with his title in 1938.  However, the meme is based on the false assumption that Time‘s “Man of the Year” designations were intended to signify greatness and approval, and were only assigned to people who have had beneficial effects on the world. That is not the case — Time‘s standard for the title has been identifying the person who has “had the greatest impact on the news,” regardless of whether that impact was positive or negative:

TIME’s choices for Person of the Year are often controversial. Editors are asked to choose the person or thing that had the greatest impact on the news, for good or ill — guidelines that leave them no choice but to select a newsworthy — not necessarily praiseworthy — cover subject.

The magazine has nominated several controversial figures as “Man of the Year” since the tradition began in 1927, including Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khruschchev, and the Ayatollah Khomeini. Osama bin Laden was strongly considered in 2001, but the the title went to New York mayor Rudy Giuliani instead.

In Time‘s 1938 “Man of the Year” article, Hitler was labeled the “greatest threatening force that the democratic, freedom-loving world faces today.”  That was as much an endorsement of Hitler’s actions in 1938 as it would be today — in other words, not at all.

2020年12月15日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

王室在 “哭泣梅根·马克尔的净值”?

哈里王子、梅根·马克尔和他们的儿子阿奇(Archie)从王室搬到加利福尼亚州的蒙特西托。

【宣称】

一份报告揭示了王室对梅根·马克尔的净资产的潜在负面看法。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

We’ve seen no shortage of questionable claims about the royal family in 2020. The departure of Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, and Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, from the royal family earlier in the year resulted in quite a bit of clickbait advertisements. One such online advertisement concerned the royal family and Meghan Markle’s net worth.

The advertisement read: “The Royal Family is Cringing at Meghan Markle’s Net Worth.”

However, this was misleading. Readers who clicked on the advertisement landed on a 50-page slideshow article on the website Money Pop. The story’s headline was: “Here’s How Much Each Member of The Royal Family is Worth.” The story made no mention of any of the royal family “cringing” at or being ashamed of Meghan Markle’s net worth in any way.

Markle’s purported net worth appeared on page 18 in the Money Pop story, and included no mention of the royal family’s thoughts on the figure:

Meghan Markle ($5 Million)

Meghan Markle used to do freelance calligraphy between acting auditions in order to make ends meet. Despite the fact that numerous members of her family have filed for bankruptcy over the years (including her own father), the actress was independently wealthy before she ever became a royal.

It’s estimated that she earned around $50,000 per episode of “Suits” and was thought to have brought in around half a million a year from acting and sponsorships. After officially stepping down as a senior royal, Meghan has a net worth of around $5 million.

Other names that appeared in the story included Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, Prince Charles, Prince William, Prince Harry, Kate Middleton (the former), Prince George, and a number of others.

The same website that published this story, Money Pop, also promoted a misleading online advertisement that made it appear Olive Garden was going out of business. It’s true that restaurant chains including Olive Garden had been financially burdened by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, Olive Garden had not announced it was closing its doors for good.

2020年12月14日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

向下倒洗碗肥皂排水管会去除木板吗?

无论是厕所、浴缸还是厨房水槽,将洗碗皂倒入家庭管道中,都引发了很多在线提示和警告。

【宣称】

将洗碗皂倒入马桶、浴缸或厨房水槽可以清除堵塞的管道。

【结论】

混合

【原文】

Online advertisements that lead to lengthy slideshow-style stories and endless “next page” clicks are perhaps not the most reliable source of information. For example, one advertisement we previously reported on said to “pour vinegar on bread and leave it in your garage.” Readers who clicked the advertisement were led to a story with 92 pages. While the ad may have meant to say “garbage,” none of the 92 pages contained information about pouring vinegar on bread.

In December 2020, advertisements about pouring dish soap down drains appeared on a number of news websites. One advertisement we found said that “pouring dish soap in the toilet is a trick to remember”:

Another said to “pour dish soap in your bath tub at night, here’s why”:

One of the advertisements led to a story on the BetterBe.co website. “Unclog your toilet” appeared on page 20:

Clogged toilets are the worst! But with just a little dish soap, you can solve the problem of your backed-up lavatory. Rather than going at your porcelain throne with a plunger, simply pour half a cup of dish soap into the toilet.

Allow the dish soap to sit in the toilet for roughly 15-20 minutes. Then use a hot bucket of water to flush the refuse down the drain. Thanks to the dish soap, your pipes should be free from all the yucky debris that first caused the clog.

We were unable to find the same trick for bath tubs on the BetterBe.co website, although another website placed the exact same photo at #20. It said: “Save your back while you put dish soap and a broom to work cleaning your bathtub. The same soap that cuts grease on your dishes will tackle soap scum and mildew in the bathroom.”

It is true that dish soap such as Dawn and other popular brands can help fix common and minor drain clogs. Several recipes to unclog drains also mention vinegar and baking soda, but for the purpose of this fact check rating we’ll be concentrating mostly on dish soap.

The San Francisco Chronicle published a recipe to unclog a toilet using dish soap. It included tips about using water heated up to a low or medium temperature on a stove. The basic idea was to pour half a cup of dish soap into the toilet, and then pour hot water (not boiling) into the toilet 10 minutes later. The Chronicle said to call a plumber if the clog remains after 30 minutes. 

The website named for home improvement extraordinaire Bob Vila also recommended dish soap to unclog drains. BobVila.com published that dish soap acts “as a lubricant,” greasing “the clog in the toilet drain to get everything moving again.”

A viral video with millions of views shows the dish soap trick for a toilet, as does a not-so-viral video from the licensed plumbers at 1-Tom-Plumber in Cincinnati, Ohio:

In the YouTube video description, it said: “This trick will only work if your kitchen sink is partially clogged. If your kitchen sink is completely clogged, we recommend going to our YouTube channel and watching our video, ‘How To Unclog Your Kitchen Sink With Vinegar & Baking Soda.'”

One tip we saw mentioned in several guides and videos was to not use boiling water in plumbing. It could crack a toilet or damage piping. The licensed team with Gilmore Heating, Air, and Solar in Sacramento, California, warned: “Do not pour boiling water down your sink or toilet.”

In recent years, DIYers looking to find a green alternative to chemical products have suggested pouring a potful of boiling water into a clogged sink or toilet to clear a clog. While it’s probably okay to dump boiling water in the sink when your pipes are clear, a clog will trap the water in the pipe. This can melt PVC piping and pipe seals, causing serious damage.

In addition, using boiling water to clear a clogged toilet can melt the wax ring around the toilet, or even crack the porcelain bowl, leading to a pricey trip to your favorite hardware store.

The also widely suggested solution of pouring baking soda into a drain, followed by vinegar, isn’t nearly as problematic, as vinegar isn’t very acidic. In fact, it may clear very mild clogs. However, this likely won’t accomplish much with more severe clogs, as all the fizzing reaction does is shift around whatever is clogging the pipe.

2020年12月14日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

德克萨斯州 HB 196 “废除” 城堡教义吗?

该法案似乎确实为自我或他人的辩护添加了 “撤退义务” 条款。但是,在自己的财产上进行自卫呢?

【宣称】

德克萨斯州众议员特里·梅萨提出的 HB 196 将废除被称为城堡学说的法律原则。

【结论】

混合

【原文】

On Nov. 9 2020, Texas state Rep. Terry Meza, D-Texas, introduced a bill that would alter three portions of the Texas code relating to an individual’s right to use force in self-defense. The three sections — 9.32, 9.41, and 9.42 — pertain to the use of deadly force in defense of a person, the use of force in the protection of one’s own property, and the use of deadly force in the protection of one’s own property, respectively.

The proposal drew sharp criticism from many Texans, with viral stories or social media posts claiming that the bill represented a repeal of the long-standing legal concept known as the castle doctrine, which is a broad legal concept that predates the U.S. Constitution and has its origins in English common law. While laws that enshrine the castle doctrine vary between states, the doctrine is almost universally described as stating that “an individual has no duty to retreat when in his or her home” and can use deadly force to protect life and property when present in his or her home.

On Dec. 9, 2020, Texas Gov. Greg Abbott tweeted, “Let me be clear. The Castle Doctrine will not be reduced. We won’t force Texas homeowners to retreat.” Meza argued on Twitter that her bill has been misrepresented by her political opponents.

To address the controversy, Snopes first looked at the proposed changes to the law presented in Meza’s House Bill (HB) 196.

Proposed Changes to 9.32 (Deadly Force in Defense of Person)

  • Adds a requirement that people using deadly force to protect themselves in situations outside their own home must be “unable to safely retreat.”
  • Removes language that explicitly states that a “finder of fact” in cases that involve a deadly force incident performed in self-defense “may not consider whether the [person using force to defend himself] failed to retreat.”
  • Removes robbery and aggravated robbery from crimes that justify deadly force outside of one’s home.
  • Removes language that explicitly describes an unlawful entry (with or without force) of a person’s home, vehicle, or place of business as a reasonable basis for the use of deadly force.
  • Clarifies that changes to this section do not require a person to retreat when the defender is using deadly force “in the person’s own habitation.”
  • Replaces “would be justified” language with “is justified” as it relates to using deadly force in defense of a person.

Proposed Changes to 9.41 ( Protection of One’s Own Property)

  • Changed to explicitly include “a habitation on land” (i.e., a home) as a form of property covered under this section. This section allows for the use of force “to prevent or terminate the other’s trespass on the land or unlawful interference with the property” or in cases when a person “reasonably believes the force is immediately necessary to reenter the land or recover the property if the actor uses the force immediately or in fresh pursuit after the dispossession.”

Proposed Changes to 9.42 (Deadly Force to Protect Property)

  • Changed to explicitly include “habitation on the land” as a form of property covered in this portion of the law, which describes when deadly force can be used to protect private property.
  • Removes “would be justified” language with “is justified” as it relates to using deadly force in defense of land and property.

Analysis

If one takes the castle doctrine to be a prohibition on a legal requirement that people attempt to retreat before defending their own home with deadly force, Meza’s bill does not explicitly repeal it. As stated in her proposed legislation, “a person who is in the person’s own habitation who has not provoked the person against whom the deadly force is used, and who is not engaged in criminal activity at the time the deadly force is used, is not required to retreat before using deadly force as described by this section.”

More accurately, this bill limits “stand your ground” self-defenses, which are laws in various states that allow for the use of deadly force in self-defense outside of the person’s home. Meza’s bill does add a “duty to retreat” clause, but that clause only applies outside a person’s own home —  an area not typically considered part of the castle doctrine. The bill would also remove robbery and aggravated robbery from the list of crimes meriting deadly force when outside one’s own home, but again this would be a challenge to stand your ground laws, not the castle doctrine.

However, the bill does narrow, to a degree, situations in which the castle doctrine might apply.

For example, it limits the use of deadly force without a duty to retreat to “a person who is in the person’s own habitation” as opposed to “a person who has a right to be present at the location where the deadly force is used.” It also appears to remove some room for judgement in the interpretation of what situations call for deadly force with minor language tweaks such as replacing “would be justified” with “is justified” in several sections.

Because Meza’s bill does not repeal a narrowly defined castle doctrine, but does limit the scope of when and where deadly force can be used in self-defense with a duty to retreat provision, we rank the claim that HB 196 repeals the castle doctrine as a “Mixture.”

2020年12月14日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

TikTok 是否揭示了解锁任何 iPhone 的秘密?

承诺 “如何解锁任何人的 iPhone” 的 TikTok 视频被观看了数百万次。

【宣称】

在苹果的计算器应用程序中,可以使用密码解锁锁定 iPhone。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

Since at least 2019, TikTok has sort of become the modern-day, go-to spot for watching videos that purportedly expose or reveal secrets about a variety of topics.

We previously covered TikTok videos that revealed Chick-fil-A’s nuggets prep process and “exposed” Panera Bread’s frozen soups and other foods. We even debunked a TikTok video that claimed to reveal zombies found on Google Earth. So it came as no surprise when a TikTok video claimed to reveal how to unlock any iPhone — the same device used by millions of people to view said TikTok videos.

On Dec. 7, 2020, TikTok user @f_y_._p posted a video that claimed to show “How to Unlock Anybody’s iPhone.” After three days, it had been viewed nearly 4 million times.

The video showed what appeared to be a child covering the top of an iPhone to stop facial recognition from automatically unlocking the device. (Face ID is Apple’s technology for facial recognition, and is a security component in iPhone devices that allows iPhone owners to unlock their device with ease, simply by looking at it.)

@f_y_._p

#fyp

♬ original sound – 

The person in the video covered the front camera on the phone for the purpose of the demonstration in the video. A series of onscreen buttons were then tapped. The Calculator app was opened. In the calculator, the combination “7×4+EE=C” was tapped. The user then swiped up, and the iPhone appeared to unlock.

What appeared to be a secret code was actually nothing of the sort. While the person in the video covered up the camera at the beginning of the video, he or she later removed the hand from covering the camera. The iPhone unlocked not because of a secret code, but rather because it recognized its owner.

For some readers, this may have brought back memories of the early days of computer labs and Windows 98. With an early version of Windows such as Windows 98, it was possible to open an internet browser even if the administrator had restricted access to the internet.

A YouTube video showed a similar exploit in Windows 98.

A comment on an old thread on the Y Combinator website recalled the trick:

Reminds me of how we had Windows 98 computers at school which required an administrator password to access the internet, else the system was limited to a few applications. We managed by opening a text editor or Word or whatever, file -> open, right-click a file, Explore which gave you access to the file system.

Typing in an URL in the address bar changed windows explorer to internet explorer (a feature which MS later had to pay a fine and a browser selection window for), and huzzah, internets!

2020年12月13日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

“美国历史上最致命的日子” 中有 4 个发生在 2020 年 12 月吗?

一个广泛分享的模因将 COVID-19 造成的死亡置于严酷的历史背景下。

【宣称】

由于 COVID-19 疫情,“美国历史上最致命的八天” 中的四天发生在 2020 年 12 月的第一周。

【结论】

混合

【原文】

As governments fight the COVID-19 pandemic, Snopes is fighting an “infodemic” of rumors and misinformation, and you can help. Read our coronavirus fact checks. Submit any questionable rumors and “advice” you encounter. Become a Founding Member to help us hire more fact-checkers. And, please, follow the CDC or WHO for guidance on protecting your community from the disease.

In December 2020, amid a renewed surge in new COVID-19 cases and deaths in the United States, many thousands of internet users shared a list that purported to put the devastating impact of fatalities from the pandemic into stark historical context. 

On Dec. 8, Twitter user @Sundae_Gurl posted a list of the eight “Deadliest Days in American History,” with four of the eight purportedly taking place during the first week of December 2020 (image above).

Memes that included the same content and figures were widely promoted on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

The list shared widely in December 2020 contained some notable omissions and questionable figures, and the inclusion of likely daily death totals from the peak of the 1918 influenza pandemic would eclipse those resulting from COVID-19 between Dec. 1 and Dec. 4, 2020, and see them relegated from the “Top 8”.

Nonetheless, the daily death tolls from COVID-19 have indeed been very high by historical standards. It is of particular symbolic significance that several days in 2020, including during the first week of December, saw more deaths from COVID-19 than the 2,403 American deaths that resulted from the attacks on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941 — a milestone event in modern American history, which President Franklin D. Roosevelt dubbed “a date which will live in infamy.”

Notable mass-fatality events omitted from the list include the San Ciriaco hurricane, which killed a reported 3,369 people in Puerto Rico, after it made landfall there on Aug. 8, 1899; and the Lake Okeechobee hurricane, which killed an estimated 2,500-3,000 people as it swept through parts of Florida on Sept. 16, 1928. 

Historically, the death toll from the San Francisco earthquake on April 18, 1906, had been set in the hundreds, but decades of research led by former city archivist Gladys Hansen revealed more than 3,400 deaths directly attributable to the disaster, as well as a political cover-up of those fatalities. In 2005, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors formally voted to record a new official death count in accordance with Hansen’s research. 

Finally, the 1918 flu pandemic caused hundreds of thousands of fatalities throughout the United States. Daily death totals are not available, but the U.S. Census Bureau recorded all deaths from influenza and pneumonia as attributable to “pandemic mortality” and reported (page 27) that 477,467 such deaths had taken place in the U.S. in 1918. Of those, 79.8 % took place in “the last four months of the year” — Sept. 1 through Dec. 31, 1918. 

That’s 381,019 deaths from the flu pandemic in just 122 days, an average of 3,123 per day. Given that that figure is only an average, it is certain that at least a few days during the autumn of 1918 saw death tolls from the flu pandemic comfortably in excess of 3,000, which would cause the four days from early December 2020 to be further relegated in the rankings of “The Deadliest Days in American History.”

2020年12月13日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

是否在山上找到遗体。乞力马扎罗山与圣经故事并行?

约瑟夫的故事讲述了一个兄弟被他的亲属推翻的故事,然后他升到埃及法老的令人垂涎的约会。

【宣称】

乞力马扎罗山上发现的遗迹为约瑟夫的故事提供了证据,约瑟夫的故事是一篇著名的圣经段落,讲述了近 4000 年前埃及发生的干旱。

【结论】

大部分是假

【原文】

In 2000, researchers studying the rate of ice melt atop Tanzania’s Mount Kilimanjaro constructed for the first time a climatic record of the African continent. In doing so, they extracted ice core samples that contained critical environmental information that spanned nearly 12,000 years.

Reddit users and some media publications speculated at the time that “remains” found on Mount Kilimanjaro provided evidence to support the story of Joseph, a well-known Bible passage recorded in the book of Genesis that described a catastrophic drought in what is now Egypt nearly 4,000 years ago.

The collected ice core samples — not “remains” — were analyzed and described in a study published in the Oct. 18, 2002, journal Science, which characterized three “catastrophic droughts” in the region, one of which coincided with the proposed drought depicted in the story of Joseph. While the findings provide some evidence that events depicted in the Bible occurred, they do not confirm the existence of Joseph or his prophetic dreams. It is also important to note that no human, anthropological, or archaeological remains were recovered at the location of the ice core sampling. 

Ice core samples play a vital role in understanding the history of our planet. Climatic events spanning thousands of years are recorded in layers of ice in much the same way that tree rings paint a picture of the environmental conditions that existed during their growth and development. As ice and snow layers build up over millennia, particulates, oxygen bubbles, and dissolved chemicals captured in the snow become part of the ice to create a record of climate conditions.

“Layers of ice accumulate over seasons and years, creating a record of the climate conditions at the time of formation, including snow accumulation, local temperature, the chemical composition of the atmosphere including greenhouse gas concentrations, volcanic activity, and solar activity,” explained the National Science Foundation Ice Core Facility, which was not affiliated with the study, on its website

In 2000, researchers at Ohio State University extracted six core samples retrieved from three shrinking ice fields atop Mount Kilimanjaro at a drill site located above 19,300 feet in what the researchers described as the “last opportunity to establish an ice core record of the African climate.” In particular, the scientists planned to look for chemical markers in the ice. In this case, that’s a spike in the isotope chlorine-36, a radioactive remnant of nuclear bomb testing in the 1950s that scientists use to calibrate historic records in ice. The same spike has been found in South America and China.

After calibrating the timeframe of the samples, the scientists found that the tropical glaciers from where they were extracted began to form 11,700 years ago. They also found chemical and atmospheric evidence of three catastrophic droughts that were 8,300, 5,200, and 4,000 years ago, the last of which was characterized by a visible layer of dust that marked a 300-year drought in the region described in the book of Genesis.

That Genesis story tells the tale of Joseph, the son of a rich man named Jacob. Joseph was given a colorful coat by his father that at the time would have held prestige in a world where vivid fabrics were costly to dye. Joseph’s brothers grew envious of their father’s perceived preference for Joseph and ultimately captured and sold Joseph into slavery. After suffering years of servitude and imprisonment, Joseph reportedly gained a reputation for interpreting dreams and told the pharaoh of Egypt that the land would experience seven years of bounty followed by seven years of famine, which ultimately led to his role as a key adviser to the pharaoh.

Though no archaeological evidence or written record exists to confirm the Biblical account of Joseph, the BBC suggested at the time the study was published that the ice core samples may confirm that the drought did take place roughly four millennia ago — a time that correlates with Joseph’s story projected to take place around 3,600 years ago.

An 1863 painting by Léon Pierre Urbain Bourgeois shows Joseph being recognized by his brothers after having served the pharaoh of Egypt. Creative Commons

In short, while the findings do not confirm that Joseph was a real person or that he experienced prophetic dreams that led to his appointment as an adviser to the Egyptian pharaoh, evidence exists to suggest that the droughts and the following centuries of famine described in the Bible may hold some truth.

2020年12月13日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

橄榄花园会停业吗?

推广 2020 年关闭餐厅名单的在线广告可能已经阻止了面包爱好者的轨道。

【宣称】

连锁餐厅橄榄园将于 2020 年停业并关闭。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

In December 2020, an online advertisement displayed a picture of an Olive Garden Italian Restaurant sign along with text that read: “Closing Time: Here’s All The Restaurant Chains Closing in 2020.”

This advertisement was misleading. Olive Garden is not closing all of its restaurants. Readers who clicked the advertisement were led to a 50-page story on the website Money Pop.

While the advertisement promised a list of restaurant chains that would be closing in 2020, the headline on the actual story was different: “These Popular Restaurant Chains Are Losing Money Fast.”

The story mentioned Olive Garden, but it only mentioned that two locations had closed in Springfield, Massachusetts, and Birmingham, Alabama, in March and April, respectively.

Olive Garden did not go out of business in 2020, but that’s not to say it hadn’t faced financial hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic. The coronavirus had led to the closure of dine-in services at thousands of different restaurants across the United States. This meant less revenue, which resulted in lost jobs. In many cases, restaurants closed.

On June 22, 2020, Nation’s Restaurant News reported that National Restaurant Association President and CEO Tom Bené said the restaurant industry had faced “catastrophic losses.”

Darden Restaurants owns the Olive Garden brand, as well as LongHorn Steakhouse, Cheddar’s Scratch Kitchen, Yard House, The Capital Grille, Seasons 52, Bahama Breeze, and Eddie V’s.

On Dec. 9, 2020, InvestorPlace.com reported that Darden had managed to survive the pandemic thus far, but it also asked: “What’s next for Darden Restaurants?”

The bull case is built on a bear case regarding other restaurants. Without government help, small operators are closing by the score. This means chains like Darden may be all that’s left when people again feel safe to eat out.

Darden has managed to make money at Olive Garden while closing half its tables. It reinstated the dividend and paid back its $270 million emergency loan. Once the pandemic is over, Cramer predicts, fast-casual chains like Olive Garden will be “the height of fine dining.”

Darden is expected to report earnings Dec. 18, for the quarter ending in November. The estimate is for 72 cents per share of net income on $1.7 billion of sales. That would beat last year’s profit on 17% less revenue.

The Money Pop story also mentioned The Cheesecake Factory on its list. We previously covered that rumor as well.

2020年12月12日
发表者 minici
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这是 2020 年 12 月你可能会看到北极光的时候

2020 年 12 月 9 日至 12 月 11 日期间,北半球的部分地区,包括美国北部地区可见北极光。

【原文】

Look up at the right time and skygazers in parts of the northern hemisphere may have an opportunity to spot the vibrant, dancing hues of the aurora borealis — if the right conditions persist through the nights of Dec. 10 and Dec. 11 in 2020.

A geomagnetic storm watch was in effect between Dec. 9 and 11, according to NOAA’s Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). The magnitude of the storm dictates how visible and to what extent the northern lights can be seen. And while the storm’s intensity was downgraded on Dec. 10, astronomers assure viewers in the northernmost latitudes that there is a probability of spotting the elusive lights.

According to the community outreach initiative dedicated to space weather, the Northern Lighthouse Project, a G1 geomagnetic storm can still produce hours of vibrant auroras in the northern hemisphere, particularly across the parts of Western Canada. Shorter periods of active auroras can also be seen at mid-latitudes in southern Canada and the northern U.S.

A simulation of the Dec. 10 show can be seen at the SWPC site by clicking on the image below “The Aurora.”

2020年12月12日
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科学家建议美国大使馆被大功率微波炉击中

过去四年来,在古巴、中国、俄罗斯和其他国家,困扰美国大使馆工作人员和中央情报局官员的神秘疾病似乎是由高功率微波炉造成的。

【原文】

This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.


The mystery ailment that has afflicted U.S. embassy staff and CIA officers off and on over the last four years in Cuba, China, Russia and other countries appears to have been caused by high-power microwaves, according to a report released by the National Academies. A committee of 19 experts in medicine and other fields concluded that directed, pulsed radiofrequency energy is the “most plausible mechanism” to explain the illness, dubbed Havana syndrome.

The report doesn’t clear up who targeted the embassies or why they were targeted. But the technology behind the suspected weapons is well understood and dates back to the Cold War arms race between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. High-power microwave weapons are generally designed to disable electronic equipment. But as the Havana syndrome reports show, these pulses of energy can harm people, as well.

High power is important in these weapons because generating very high instantaneous power yields very high instantaneous electric fields, which scale as the square root of the power. It is these high electric fields that can disrupt electronics, which is why the Department of Defense is interested in these devices.

How it affects people

The National Academies report links high-power microwaves to impacts on people through the Frey effect. The human head acts as a receiving antenna for microwaves in the low gigahertz frequency range. Pulses of microwaves in these frequencies can cause people to hear sounds, which is one of the symptoms reported by the affected U.S. personnel. Other symptoms Havana syndrome sufferers have reported include headaches, nausea, hearing loss, lightheadedness and cognitive issues.

The report notes that electronic devices were not disrupted during the attacks, suggesting that the power levels needed for the Frey effect are lower than would be required for an attack on electronics. This would be consistent with a high-power microwave weapon located at some distance from the targets. Power decreases dramatically with distance through the inverse square law, which means one of these devices could produce a power level at the target that would be too low to affect electronics but that could induce the Frey effect.

The Russians and the Chinese certainly possess the capabilities of fielding high-power microwave sources like the ones that appear to have been used in Cuba and China. The truth of what actually happened to U.S. personnel in Cuba and China – and why – might remain a mystery, but the technology most likely involved comes from textbook physics, and the military powers of the world continue to develop and deploy it.The Conversation


Edl Schamiloglu, Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Associate Dean for Research and Innovation, School of Engineering, University of New Mexico, University of New Mexico

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

2020年12月12日
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这张照片是否显示了两个男孩-一个接种疫苗,一个没有-谁接触了天花?

20 世纪初,艾伦·华纳记录了几例天花病例和疫苗的影响。

【宣称】

一张照片显示了暴露于同一天花源的两个男孩之间的巨大差异。

【结论】


【原文】

The importance of the smallpox vaccination tends to go unnoticed in modern society, as the disease was officially eradicated by the 1980s. But Internet users were reminded of this terrible disease, the medicine that helped eliminated it, and the utility of vaccinations in general in June 2018, when a shocking photograph purportedly showing two children who had been exposed to the same smallpox source was posted to Reddit:

These two boys had been exposed to the same smallpox source. One had been vaccinated, the other hadn’t.

This is a genuine photograph that was taken in the early 1900s by Dr. Allan Warner of the Isolation Hospital at Leicester in the UK. Warner photographed a number of smallpox patients in order to study the disease. In 1906, the Scottish Medical and Surgical Journal noted the importance of Warner’s work:

Smallpox of all the eruptive fevers best lends itself to illustration by photograph, and the photographs in this fasciculus of the eruption of smallpox which it has been our good fortune to see. They are the work of Dr. Allan Warner of the Isolation Hospital at Leicester, and they show very distinctly the different stages and varieties of the small pox eruption. Their value is enhanced by the fact that the progress of the eruption is illustrated by a series of plates of one and the same patient, both in the discrete and in the confluent variety of the fever.

Other plates are given showing cases of mild smallpox as it occurs in the vaccinated, and we are particularly impressed by the concluding series of photographs in which the advantages of vaccinations are well brought out by the method of showing side by side individuals infected from the same source, of whom one has been vaccinated and the other not. These pictures would be of the greatest use to those who give popular lectures on vaccination, and are also very useful as illustrations of modified smallpox.

The medical journal here is referring to a series of photographs by Warner that were published in the Atlas of Clinical Medicine, Surgery, and Pathology a few years previously, in 1901. This particular photograph was originally accompanied by a caption which stated that both children were 13 years old, that they had both been infected by the same smallpox source on the same day, but that only one had received a vaccination in infancy:

Shows two boys, both aged 13 years. The one on the right was vaccinated in infancy, the other was not vaccinated. They were both infected from the same source on the same day. Note that while the one on the left is in the fully pustular stage, the one on the right has had only two spots, which have aborted and have already scabbed.

More photographs of this nature can also be found in this volume. For instance, the following photograph shows two sisters aged 21 and 15 who were exposed to the same source of smallpox on the same day. Again, only one of the sisters had received a vaccination:

Two sisters infected with smallpox on the same day from the same source. Upper figure. Girl aged 21 years, vaccinated in infancy. Lower figure. Girl aged 15 years, unvaccinated.

A vaccination for smallpox was developed by an English doctor named Edward Jenner in the late 1700s. It would eventually lead to the eradication of smallpox, but in the 1700s as in the first decades of the 21st century, physicians faced opposition from anti-vaccination groups. Professor Gareth Williams, chair of the Jenner Trust, used Warner’s photographs during a presentation at Gresham University about the history of the anti-vaccination movement. According to Williams, the parents of the boy on the left in the viral image were swept up by anti-vaccination fervor when they decided not to inoculate their child: 

The Members of Parliament were anti-vaccination. Gloucester, which of course was Jenner’s own county town, was one such centre. So to were Leeds, Leicester, Glasgow and Liverpool amongst others.

Here is one magnificent demonstration of the fact that vaccination works, but only if you have it. If you do not have it, it is not going to work. The lad on the left and the lad on the right were members of the same class at school, and they met the same index case who was brewing up smallpox on the same day. The lad on the right, obviously, had been vaccinated. The lad on the left, his parents, who had been whipped up by the local MP, had refused to have their son vaccinated, with obvious consequences.

2020年12月12日
发表者 minici
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4 名 COVID-19 疫苗试验患者是否研发出贝尔的麻痹?

美国食品药物管理局写道:“据观察到贝尔在疫苗组中报告的麻痹频率与普通人口的预期背景率是一致的。”

【宣称】

四名参加 COVID-19 疫苗试验的患者患上了贝尔的麻痹症。

【结论】

大多是真的

【原文】

As governments fight the COVID-19 pandemic, Snopes is fighting an “infodemic” of rumors and misinformation, and you can help. Read our coronavirus fact checks. Submit any questionable rumors and “advice” you encounter. Become a Founding Member to help us hire more fact-checkers. And, please, follow the CDC or WHO for guidance on protecting your community from the disease.

In December 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released additional data concerning a COVID-19 vaccine from the pharmaceutical company Pfizer ahead of a meeting with an independent panel of scientists and public health officials to discuss the new drug’s approval. Although the report showed that the vaccine was largely effective, some social media users singled out one seemingly scary statistic: Four of the patients who received the vaccine developed Bell’s palsy, a type of temporary facial paralysis.

The information contained in the above-displayed tweet is largely accurate, although it should be noted the individuals pictured at the bottom of this message are not the same individuals who were involved in the COVID-19 vaccine trial. This image dates back to at least 2019 and was apparently included to illustrate the sort of facial paralysis that occurs with Bell’s palsy. 

More importantly, this tweet (and dozens more like it) may give readers the impression that this vaccine caused Bell’s palsy. As of this writing, there’s no evidence to support that assertion. 

The FDA noted in its report that four people (out of about 22,000) in the vaccine group developed Bell’s palsy, while no cases were reported in the similarly sized trial group. However, this low incident rate is consistent with the expected background rate of Bell’s palsy in the general population.

The FDA wrote:

Bell’s palsy was reported by four vaccine participants and none in the placebo group. These cases occurred at 3, 9, 37, and 48 days after vaccination. One case (onset at 3 days postvaccination) was reported as resolved with sequelae within three days after onset, and the other three were reported as continuing or resolving as of the November 14, 2020 data cut-off with ongoing durations of 10, 15, and 21 days, respectively. The observed frequency of reported Bell’s palsy in the vaccine group is consistent with the expected background rate in the general population, and there is no clear basis upon which to conclude a causal relationship at this time, but FDA will recommend surveillance for cases of Bell’s palsy with deployment of the vaccine into larger populations.

Pfizer Canada President Cole Pinnow reiterated this point to the CBC:

2020年12月11日
发表者 minici
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阴谋论可能看起来不合理-但它们满足了人类的基本需求

许多非理性的信念都是试图通过回应人类对控制、理解和归属的需求来保护心理健康。

【原文】

This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.


There has been a proliferation of conspiracy theories about COVID-19 that either reject the existence of the virus altogether or question the official account of its origins, its mode of transmission, its effects and its remedies. Many of these theories are highly implausible and harmful and it has become commonplace to describe them as irrational – even delusional.

But it is not plausible to describe them as signs of mental illness. Quite the opposite. Our research has shown that many irrational beliefs are attempts to protect mental health by responding to the human need for control, understanding and belonging.

As our previous research highlighted, people tend to prefer explanations that make reference to a person’s intentions over explanations that present the event as accidental. In particular, they tend to blame a threat on “agents” they may already have reason to distrust. This is why various COVID-19 conspiracy theories blame “the Chinese” who have long been political targets in Europe and the US, or pharmaceutical companies whose influence is criticised in the anti-vax and anti-psychiatry movements.

Seeing the event as planned rather than accidental allows people to maintain a sense of control over a reality that is confusing and unpredictable. If there is someone to blame, we can restore some kind of balance to the universe by seeking to punish the culprits for their evil conduct. Also, we can prevent them from harming us next time. This illusion of control contributes to our optimism about the future and helps us cope effectively with adversity.

Rejecting evidence

But why do people commit to a theory that is incompatible with accepted wisdom even when the evidence for it is inconclusive? The conflict with an official version arises from distrust towards institutions such as governments, scientists, the media and medical authorities. This distrust drives the belief in a conspiracy and is central to the identity of groups that people already associate with.

Conspiracy theories tend to originate within so-called “epistemic bubbles”. These are social structures in which opposing voices are, more or less deliberately, excluded. This typically happens in self-selected social media networks like Facebook groups or Twitter exchanges where those with a different view are blocked. Within these bubbles, theories about COVID-19 become something that defines who the people are and what they stand for.

Each bubble has its own standards to evaluate expertise and evidence. Some conspiracy theorists mistrust statistics and for some COVID-19 deniers the experts are not the epidemiologists, but the holistic health gurus. If people are trapped in an alternative bubble it may not be irrational (from their point of view) to endorse a theory that is consistent with their previous convictions and matches the testimony of others in their group. The theory is a way of imposing meaning on a constantly changing world.

This suggests that to counter the spread of conspiracy theories, we should find other ways to fulfil the needs from which they arise, such as the need for control or for causal understanding. Although we have no control over the fact that there is a pandemic, it can be empowering to realise that our behaviour in response to it – such as wearing a mask or respecting social distance – can make a difference to its outcomes. And although experts cannot always provide the unfaltering certainties people crave, friendly and accessible scientific communication can help debunk conspiracy theories and satisfy the human desire for knowledge and understanding.The Conversation


Lisa Bortolotti, Professor of Philosophy, University of Birmingham and Anna Ichino, Postdoctoral Fellow in Philosophy, University of Milan

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

2020年12月11日
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选举学院系统不是 “一人一投票”

小国选民的人均选举团选票比较大、多样化程度更高的州多,因此选择总统的权力比在全国大选中拥有的更多。

【原文】

This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.


When it became clear that President Donald Trump would lose the popular vote in November’s election, questions again arose about the Electoral College, and whether it is fair.

A presidential candidate can lose the popular vote and still win the Electoral College vote, and therefore the presidency. That’s what happened with Trump in 2016.

It’s not just Wyoming voters who have disproportionate influence over the Electoral College. They are joined by voters in the District of Columbia and 11 other states with fewer than five Electoral College votes. Voters in more populous states, like North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and Georgia, have much less influence, along with those in California, Texas and New York.

A system like this existed in Georgia up until the middle of the 20th century. Called the “unit county system,” it gave voters in lightly populated counties more influence over who was elected governor than voters in more populous counties had. But in 1963, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down that system, ruling that it violated the fundamental principle of “one person, one vote.”

Could the same thing happen to the Electoral College?

LaGrange College undergraduate Tia Braxton contributed to the research.The Conversation


John A. Tures, Professor of Political Science, LaGrange College

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

2020年12月11日
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TikTok 视频 “暴露” 塔可贝尔如何制作冷冻豆?

如果不是快速准备,快餐就没什么。

【宣称】

TikTok 视频显示有人在塔可贝尔餐厅准备了冷冻豆。

【结论】


【原文】

We’ve been covering Taco Bell rumors for more than 20 years. Stories we’ve rated included misleading claims about cockroach eggs, “Grade D but edible” meat, and the fast-food chain’s Cinnamon Twists dessert.

On Dec. 4, 2020, TikTok user @maniic666 shared a video of what appeared to be dehydrated refried beans being prepared in a Taco Bell kitchen.

@maniic666

#tacobell #beans

♬ original sound – maniic666

Taco Bell’s refried beans prep process has also been covered by RuinMyWeek.com, The Daily Dot, InTheKnow.com, and Mashed. The Daily Dot’s headline read: “Employee ‘exposes’ how Taco Bell beans are made in viral TikTok video.”

In November 2020, InTheKnow.com reported:

A Taco Bell employee is going viral on TikTok after sharing the process behind one of the chain’s most iconic ingredients.

The fast-food worker, who goes by the name homerolara0 on social media, posted the behind-the-scenes clip on June 7, where it’s since been viewed more than 3.2 million times. In it, the TikToker shows how Taco Bell prepares its refried beans.

Homerolara0’s clip (which features explicit music) begins with him opening a white, sealed package that contains pieces of beans, which almost resemble macaroni noodles. He then proceeds to boil water and cook the beans inside a metal vat.

Despite the negative comments on the viral videos, dehydrated refried beans are not all that rare. Walmart sold instant refried beans from the Herdez brand. The HEB grocery store chain also sold a Santa Fe Bean Company’s dehydrated refried beans. Amazon sold instant refried bean products from Mexicali Rose, Fantastic Foods, and Casa Corona.

On the Taco Bell website, the company published questions and answers about its ingredients:

We buy many of our ingredients for our restaurants from the same brands that you see in the grocery store and your kitchen: for example, lettuce from Taylor Farms, tortillas from Mission, Hass avocados and poultry from Tyson. We’ve had long-standing relationships with all of our suppliers to ensure they meet and exceed industry standards for food quality. All of our ingredients are certified by the Food and Drug Administration, under the GRAS provision. To learn more about GRAS ingredients please visit, //www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/.

According to the Taco Bell website, its refried beans are “certified vegan.” Ingredients include “pinto beans, soybean oil, and seasoning (salt, sugar, spice, beet powder (VC), natural flavors, sunflower oil, maltodextrin, corn flour, trehalose, and modified cornstarch).” The company also makes cooked cans of beans that are sold in grocery stores.

We reached out to Taco Bell about the viral TikTok videos and will update this story in the future should more information come to light.

2020年12月10日
发表者 minici
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银河联邦?美国航空航天局在外星人传言后发布声明

事实已经在那里,但可能不是。

【原文】

On Dec. 2, 2020, Israel’s newspaper Yediot Aharonot published an interview with Haim Eshed, former head of Israel’s Defense Ministry’s space directorate, about his new book “The Universe Beyond the Horizon — Conversations with Professor Haim Eshed.” A few days later, translated excerpts of this interview started going viral, as they supposedly captured Eshed making a few unbelievable claims. 

For example, these translated quotes show Eshed claiming that humans had made contact with aliens, that a secret underground base exists on Mars, and that the “Galactic Federation” had signed an agreement with officials in the United States. 

The Jerusalem Post reported:

Speaking in an interview to Yediot Aharonot, Eshed – who served as the head of Israel’s space security program for nearly 30 years and is a three-time recipient of the Israel Security Award – explained that Israel and the US have both been dealing with aliens for years.

And this by no means refers to immigrants, with Eshed clarifying the existence of a “Galactic Federation.”

The 87-year-old former space security chief gave further descriptions about exactly what sort of agreements have been made between the aliens and the US, which ostensibly have been made because they wish to research and understand “the fabric of the universe.” This cooperation includes a secret underground base on Mars, where there are American and alien representatives.

Here’s one quote translated via Google that was posted to Yediot Aharonot’s Facebook page on Dec. 4:

The UFOs have asked not to publish that they are here, humanity is not ready yet. Trump was on the verge of finding out, but the aliens in the Galactic Federation say: Wait, let the winds calm down first. They do not want mass hysteria to develop in us. They want to make us sane first and understand. They have waited until today, for humanity to evolve and reach a stage where we will generally understand what space and spaceship are.

This quote should be taken with a hefty dose of salt. 

For starters, these comments come from a promotional interview for a new book “The Universe Beyond the Horizon – Conversations with Professor Haim Eshed.” While that doesn’t mean on its own that these claims are false, it may indicate that book sales, not uncovering the truth, were the driving force behind these comments.

Nick Pope, who used to investigate UFOs for the British Ministry of Defense, told NBC News:

“Either this is some sort of practical joke or publicity stunt to help sell his book, perhaps with something having been lost in translation, or someone in the know is breaking ranks.”

It should also be noted that these claims do not have the support of the scientific community. As of this writing, reports about a base where humans and aliens comingle beneath the Martian surface, that aliens have been in contact with the Trump administration, or that humanity signed some sort of contract with the “Galactic Federation” have not been confirmed by any credible space agency. 

NASA released a statement after these claims went viral, writing that the search for alien life is still ongoing. 

A spokesperson for NASA said: 

One of NASA’s key goals is the search for life in the universe. Although we have yet to find signs of extraterrestrial life, NASA is exploring the solar system and beyond to help us answer fundamental questions, including whether we are alone in the universe. From studying water on Mars, probing promising “oceans worlds,” such as Enceladus and Europa, to looking for biosignatures in the atmospheres of planets outside our solar system, NASA’s science missions are working together with a goal to find unmistakable signs of life beyond Earth.

2020年12月10日
发表者 minici
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美国航空航天局是否询问 Sally Ride 是否 100 个卫生棉条足够在太空中 14 天?

即使是这一数额的一半在太空中也足够了两个星期。

【宣称】

美国航空航天局的工程师在 1984 年乘坐飞机挑战者航天飞机之前,询问 Sally Ride 是否有 100 条卫生棉条足够在太空中两周。

【结论】


【原文】

Space pioneer Sally Ride, who became the first female American astronaut in space, was asked by NASA engineers if 100 tampons would be sufficient for the 14 days she was to spend on the space shuttle Challenger in 1984.

The story resurfaced in April 2020, when comedienne Marcia Belsky performed a now-viral song about Ride on Comedy Central titled, “Proof that NASA Doesn’t Know Anything About Women.”

“Remember when NASA sent a woman to space for only six days and they gave her 100 tampons. 100 tampons. And they asked, ‘Will that be enough?’ Because they didn’t know if that was enough,” Belsky sang at her keyboard. “These are our nation’s greatest minds. They are literally rocket scientists.”

The video picked up steam once again in November 2020 when social media users expressed similar disbelief at the suggestion of 100 tampons for such a short amount of time.

Lmao @NASA apparently asked Sally Ride, the first woman in space, if ONE HUNDRED tampons would be enough for a week in space and if she needed more 😭😭 they actually didn’t know how many tampons women used.

— Raven the Science Maven (@ravenscimaven) November 30, 2020

It is not uncommon for astronauts to head to space with their own personal hygiene kits, which have been issued as standard equipment for astronauts since the 1960s. These kits typically contain items like a toothbrush, lotion, deodorant, comb, and razor. But in a predominantly male field in the 1980s, experts apparently had limited knowledge in the types of hygiene items that would be necessary for a woman. 

The optional — and unused — makeup kit included eyeliner, mascara, eye shadow, eye makeup remover, blusher, and lip gloss. It went on display in the Human Spaceflight at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia, in 2002.

Women still remain a minority of those who have visited space in the four decades since Ride’s 1984 mission. Of more than 500 cosmonauts, astronauts, payload specialists, and space station participants who have been to space, NASA noted that just 65 have been women as of March 2020. 

2020年12月10日
发表者 minici
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凯特·米德尔顿 “刚丢下意想不到的婴儿炸弹”?

在像 2020 这样动荡的一年里,我们宁愿不去过去。

【宣称】

剑桥公爵夫人凯特·米德尔顿 “刚刚丢下了一个意想不到的婴儿炸弹。”

【结论】

已过时

【原文】

In December 2020, an online advertisement displayed the words: “Kate Middleton Just Dropped An Unexpected Baby Bombshell.” Readers who clicked the ad were led to a 40-page slideshow story from Elite Daily that bore the headline: “When Kate Had A Candid Conversation With A Fan, She Made An Unexpected Confession About William.”

There were two components here. First, the initial advertisement that read: “Kate Middleton Just Dropped An Unexpected Baby Bombshell.” Second, the ad led to the 40-page Elite Daily slideshow story, which itself was filled with ads. The goal of the company that created these components was to make more money on the ads that would be displayed during the slideshow than it cost to run the initial “Unexpected Baby Bombshell” ad in the first place. This strategy is known as advertising “arbitrage.”

The Elite Daily website detailed over the course of 40 pages that Middleton made two comments in the last two years about the possibility of a fourth baby. While it’s true that Middleton did say she and Prince William might not have more kids, it was misleading for the advertisement to say that any of Middleton’s comments were from late 2020.

In January 2020, Middleton said of the idea of more children: “I don’t think William wants any more.” This comment was nearly a year before the advertisement was still being served by Elite Daily via the Taboola advertising platform. On Jan. 16, 2020, Entertainment Tonight reported:

During an appearance in Bradford, England, the Duchess of Cambridge was overheard by multiple royal reporters speaking with a fan in the crowd who asked her about a potential royal baby no. 4. She replied, “I don’t think William wants any more.”

At the time, Kate had been speaking with Josh Macpalce, a 25-year-old who is autistic and has DiGeorge syndrome, who was telling her about how he sent her a card for the births of each of her children. He then held out his arms to the duchess and she bent down and said, “Thank you for the hug.”

Kate, 38, and William, 37, are parents to 6-year-old Prince George, 4-year-old Princess Charlotte, and 1-year-old Prince Louis.

Further, Elite Daily also included in its story a moment from March 2019, in which Middleton made a comment regarding the possibility of a fourth child. The International Business Times reported:

Kate Middleton has expressed her true feelings about having another child. The Duchess of Cambridge admitted to feeling a baby fever when she met a 5-month-old baby boy during her and Prince William’s royal tour in Ballymena, Northern Ireland.

During their visit, the mother-of-three gushed about James Barr, and told his father Alan: “He’s gorgeous. It makes me feel a little broody.”

He asked: “Baby number four?”

However, Kate laughed and replied: “I think William would be a little worried.”

In early 2020, a number of rumors and predictions circulated that the couple’s fourth baby was on the way and would arrive by year’s end. However, as of December 2020, the couple had made no such announcement.

There has been no shortage of royal family rumors in 2020, especially with the departure of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex. The couple moved to Montecito, California, which is located north of Los Angeles.

2020年12月9日
发表者 minici
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开发 COVID 疫苗不到一年的时间?这就是为什么你不应该感到惊慌

迄今为止,还没有发生与冠状病毒疫苗有关的单一死亡,只有少数可能的严重事件。

【原文】

This article is republished here with permission from The Conversation. This content is shared here because the topic may interest Snopes readers; it does not, however, represent the work of Snopes fact-checkers or editors.


I’m a clinical trials geek. I keep hearing people talk about the seven to ten years it takes to make a vaccine and how dangerous speeding this up might be. The word that keeps popping up is “rushed”, and it is making the average person nervous about vaccine safety. So, as a clinical trials doctor, I am going to tell you what I do for most of those ten years – and it is not very much.

I’m not lazy. I submit grants, have them rejected, resubmit them, wait for review, resubmit them somewhere else, sometimes in a loop of doom. When I am lucky enough to get trials funded, I then spend months on submitting to ethics boards. I wait for regulators, deal with personnel changes at the drugs company and a “change of focus” away from my trials, and eventually, if I am very lucky, I spend time setting up trials: finding sites, training sites, panicking because recruitment is poor, finding more sites. I then usually have more regulatory issues and, finally, if my big pot of luck is not used up, I might have a viable therapy – or not.

None of this is to downplay the challenges still ahead. It is also not to say vaccines are without safety questions still to be answered. It has been, however, a triumph of good process and great people. I am confident that when regulators pore over the safety and efficacy data, closely followed by every interested scientist in the world, that vaccines will only be used if their benefits clearly outweigh the risks – and you should be confident too.The Conversation


Mark Toshner, Director of Translational Biomedical Research, University of Cambridge

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

2020年12月9日
发表者 minici
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一个茶派对组织正在为戒严的呼吁筹款。那笔钱去哪里了?

斯诺普斯对《我们人民大会》进行了一点深入了解,并了解到它向该会议自己的主席管理的 PAC 捐了大量资金。那是为什么?

【原文】

On Dec. 1, 2020, Michael Flynn, the retired and recently pardoned U.S. Army lieutenant general and former Trump national security adviser, tweeted a link to a lengthy paid advertisement placed in the Washington Times. The ad, created by an obscure, Ohio Tea Party-linked group named We the People Convention, called for “limited martial law” so that a do-over election overseen by the U.S. military could be completed.

The ad, filled with unfounded or debunked allegations of widespread election fraud, made inflammatory claims about what were presented to be existential threats to American democracy and the U.S. Constitution due to the election of Joe Biden. It invoked the specter of political violence that directly preceded the Civil War as a reason to suspend the Constitution and overturn the results of the 2020 presidential election. It accused political opponents of President Donald Trump of outright treason. The ad implored Trump to “take action now before there is no peaceful way left to preserve our Union.”

Given the seriousness of those charges, as well as the unprecedented and anti-democratic remedy of military force to overturn the results of a democratically held election, one might assume that the underlying organization behind the ad — We The People Convention — has equally lofty plans to “preserve our Union” with funds the organization is currently soliciting. But that assumption would be pretty far off the mark. We The People Convention’s primary concern at the moment, based on their website, is advertising the founder’s podcast and fund-raising for a yet-to-be-realized “Ohio State Wide Weekly Radio Network.”

Here, Snopes uses financial and Federal Election Commission (FEC) documents, as well as past reporting on the We the People Convention’s founder, to demonstrate that for all of the group’s bluster, much of the money it has raised has financially benefited its founder — Portage County (Ohio) Tea Party Executive Director Tom Zawistowski — his companies, or his other political misadventures.

FEC records (at least using FEC data through October 2020) indicate that in the 2019-2020 election cycle, Zawistowski’s Freedom for All PAC received over $15,000 from Zawistowski’s We the People Convention. It is unclear how this donation would go to supporting the proposed radio network or the aforementioned logistical costs the donations purport to cover. Zawistowski declined to answer any of our questions about the PAC, telling us via email that “All the appropriate paperworks [sic] has been filed with the FEC for the Freedom for All PAC and we, unlike you and your partners on the left, actually follow the law and respect the law.”

These same FEC records also demonstrate that Zawistowski’s PACs pay Zawistowski’s private company as a vendor. Freedom for All PAC’s largest expense, according to data collected by the political finance transparency group OpenSecrets, was services rendered by Zawistowski’s TRZ Communication Services. That company, founded by Zawistowki, received over $24,000 from Freedom for All PAC in the recent election cycle. TRZ Communications is the parent company — among other things — of a company that performs mass email and phone messaging services. Though the amount of money involved is much smaller, the Ohio People’s PAC’s largest vendor is also TRZ Communication Services.

Campaign Legal Center (CLC) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization that “advances democracy through law at the federal, state and local levels.” According to the CLC’s Erin Chlopak, there may well be nothing strictly illegal about Zawistowski’s use of funds, but his actions are representative of a broader transparency problem in political fundraising. In reference to our findings, Cholpack, the CLC’s director of campaign finance strategy, told us in a phone interview, “I think you’ve landed upon a phenomenon that, in the campaign finance world, is referred to as a scam PAC.” Such PACs and other political organizations like it, she said, “often take advantage of older [and] less politically savvy voters and donors” and provide limited transparency about the specific uses of donated funds.

The Big Picture

The fact that such a campaign may financially or politically benefit its founder is certainly a testament to transparency problems in political advertising, but its viral success is evidence of the degree to which fringe ideas have become mainstream and potentially dangerous. In a series of tweets, J.J. MacNab, a fellow at George Washington University’s Program on Extremism, argued that the ad could incite violence not because it would work to achieve martial law, “but because when it doesn’t happen, it could stir up a number of violent acts from the true believers.”

Military leaders have also echoed these concerns. That retired Lt. General Flynn and other former high-ranking military officials tweeted or endorsed an ad calling for martial law in response to an election result is dangerous, according to Jim Golby, a former Trump White House official and retired Army strategist who is now a senior fellow at the University of Texas at Austin’s Clements Center for National Security. Such endorsements “undermine our democracy, and create a real security threat,” he told Military Times, explaining that, “by speaking out on fringe media or retweeting this information, they are likely to influence some Americans and ensure that harmful messages like these get oxygen.”

There appears to be plenty of oxygen. What We The People Convention demonstrated is that an obscure group soliciting donations to build a local radio network is sufficiently capable of convincing former high-ranking military members to endorse martial law and the suspension of the U.S. Constitution. 

2020年12月9日
发表者 minici
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不,中国不是在加拿大集军队入侵美国

宣扬仇外心理的故事,关于中国驻加拿大军队的恐惧声称是毫无根据的。

【宣称】

成千上万的中国军队正在加拿大集结,准备入侵美国。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

In the fall of 2020, various social media users shared a right-wing hoax claiming that China had amassed troops in Canada in preparation to invade the U.S. The conspiracy theory appears to have originated with Hal Turner, a white supremacist radio personality and blogger.

Turner’s post carries the incendiary headline, “Arm Yourselves and Prepare; China Massing ‘Tens-of-Thousands’ of Troops in Prince Rupert and Vancouver Canada. Invade USA?” The claim has been circulating on various platforms, with some sharing a brief YouTube video as “proof.” 

In the video, a man in a car claims to be driving by Chinese troops gathering on a road in Salt Spring Island, Vancouver. But if you actually watch the video, all you see are people wearing green fatigues casually walking in loose formation. There’s no evidence the people are “Chinese military,” as the man narrating the video states.

In an email to Snopes, a spokesperson for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canada’s national police force, said they have “no awareness” of China amassing troops on Canadian soil.

Turner’s post claims that the troop placement was enabled by “the globalist/Commie Prime Minister of Canada, Justin Trudeau” who in 2019 signed the Foreign Investment Protection Act with China allowing Chinese security forces to be stationed in Canada “without the knowledge or consent of local authorities.” This is a mischaracterization of the agreement between China and Canada.

The agreement was not signed by Trudeau, but by his predecessor, Stephen Harper. It went into effect in 2014 — a year before Trudeau took office — and there is no mention in the agreement of Chinese troop placement on Canadian soil.

2020年12月9日
发表者 minici
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在 Chick-fil-a 说 “我的快乐” 会赚免费食物吗?

TikTok 视频和推文多年来一直声称在 Chick-Fil-a 上说 “我的快乐” 为顾客赢得了折扣、免费冰淇淋或免费食物。

【宣称】

如果客户对 Chick-Fil-a 员工说 “我的快乐”,他们有权享受折扣、免费冰淇淋菜单或完全免费食物。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

On Dec. 2, 2020, TikTok user Jordan Lewis, aka @driftyjayy, posted a video that showed a purported hack for “how to get free food from Chick-fil-A.” In the video, Lewis pointed his camera at a Chick-fil-A drive-thru speaker and ordered a meal with four Chick-fil-A sauces.

Lewis was asked: “Will that be all for you sir?”

Lewis responded: “Yes, thank you.”

After a brief silence, Lewis said “my pleasure” before the supposed employee had a chance to say it. He was then told: “Your total is $0.”

Unfortunately for fans of Chick-fil-A, the video was a prank. Lewis appeared to possibly even do the voice of the supposed employee. Other TikTok videos from Lewis are also pranks, and appeared to all be in good fun.

2020年12月9日
发表者 minici
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Netflix 是否因为 COVID-19 而免费赠送 1 年订阅?

自疫情开始以来,网络钓鱼诈骗在互联网上激增。

【宣称】

由于 COVID-19 疫情,Netflix 为用户提供一年免费订阅。

【结论】

骗局

【原文】

As governments fight the COVID-19 pandemic, Snopes is fighting an “infodemic” of rumors and misinformation, and you can help. Read our coronavirus fact checks. Submit any questionable rumors and “advice” you encounter. Become a Founding Member to help us hire more fact-checkers. And, please, follow the CDC or WHO for guidance on protecting your community from the disease.

Since the start of the COVID-19 coronavirus in the United States in March 2020, a scam has been circulating on the internet falsely informing viewers that streaming giant Netflix was offering a free one-year subscription due to the pandemic.

Here’s an example of the scam we found circulating on Twitter, with the user’s name cropped out for privacy reasons:

The text of the scam read, “Due to the CoronaVirus pandemic worldwide, Netflix is ​giving some free pass for their platform during the period of isolation. Run on the site cause it will end quick!” The post also included a link, which we cropped out because it is likely a phishing site.

Netflix is making no such offer, and in fact as of October 2020, it no longer even offered temporary free trials for potential subscribers.

In other Netflix-related scams, members of the public reported receiving emails and text messages from scammers posing as Netflix representatives, telling them they need to update their accounts. The company stated it wouldn’t seek personal information, like banking or credit card numbers, in texts or emails.

2020年12月8日
发表者 minici
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是的,一只小鸡-一个 “脱离传统” 并于周日开放

对于 Cick-Fil-Fil-A 连锁快餐店来说,这是一个罕见的场合,但并非前所未有。

【宣称】

至少有一家 Chick-Fil-a 餐厅 “脱离传统” 并于周日开业。

【结论】


【原文】

On Dec. 17, 2017, a Sunday, the Chick-fil-A fast-food restaurant located in the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport opened and began to make chicken sandwiches. Chick-fil-A has traditionally been closed on Sundays. However, on this Sunday, passengers were stranded due to a power failure in the airport. In response, the fast-food restaurant chain opened to deliver free food.

The airport’s Twitter account tweeted photographs of Chick-fil-A’s chicken sandwiches being handed out to passengers. Dan Cathy, chairman and CEO of Chick-fil-A, was pictured as one of the people giving out free food. Chick-fil-A’s corporate headquarters is based in Atlanta, Georgia.

LIGHTS ON and delivering food and water to our passengers! Thank you @dancathy with @ChickfilA for opening on a SUNDAY! #ChristmasMiracle pic.twitter.com/0PlSxHIWj5

— Atlanta Airport (@ATLairport) December 18, 2017

Business Insider reported on the late Sunday evening opening, writing that “Chick-fil-A broke from tradition and opened on a Sunday — and there’s an incredible backstory.”

Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport lost power Sunday afternoon, causing more than 1,000 flights to be grounded. As day turned to night, the city of Atlanta turned to Chick-fil-A to help craft a solution.

Atlanta’s mayor, Kasim Reed, called the fast-food chain at about 10 p.m. and asked for assistance, a company spokeswoman, Amanda Hannah, told Business Insider in an email.

Chick-fil-A is not open on Sunday because of the founder’s religious beliefs. But on this Sunday, Chick-fil-A employees “immediately mobilized,” Hannah said, making sandwiches and delivering them to an emergency operations center to be distributed to stranded passengers.

Hannah also said that Chick-fil-A does “open occasionally to serve communities in need,” which meant that this wasn’t the first time a Chick-fil-A location opened on a Sunday. The company explained its policy and detailed previous Sunday openings on the Chick-fil-A website:

Every Chick-fil-A restaurant closes on Sundays, so Team Members are guaranteed at least one weekend day to spend outside of the restaurant. The tradition dates back to Truett Cathy’s original restaurant, The Dwarf Grill, which closed on Sundays because the diner was open 24 hours a day, and he wanted to give his team a day off to rest and to worship if they choose.

Chick-fil-A also believes in using that day off to strengthen communities, both close to home and throughout the cities its restaurants serve. In that spirit, sometimes Operators make exceptions when their communities are in need.

For example, in the wake of the Pulse nightclub shootings in Orlando in 2016, Team Members at Chick-fil-A Lee Vista volunteered on Sunday to feed first responders and blood donors.

In December 2015, after tornadoes ripped through Texas, team members at several restaurants near Dallas spent their Sunday preparing and distributing free food to first responders and people affected by the tornadoes.

The company once appeared to endorse a Sunday opening by mistake. In 2019, the company planned to back National Sandwich Day, but later backed out after realizing the special day would fall on a Sunday.

To see how seriously Chick-fil-A takes its Sunday closures, look to the Chick-fil-A location at Mercedes-Benz Stadium, where the Atlanta Falcons NFL team plays. NFL football games are mostly played on Sundays, which means that the restaurant is closed during most home games. For Falcons games, the restaurant would only be open on Monday and Thursday nights, or perhaps for Saturday playoff games. However, the company explained that the stadium location is still open for “about 100 events a year,” including “Atlanta United soccer games, concerts, college football games, high school football games, band competitions and more.”

2020年12月8日
发表者 minici
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这是澳大利亚的 “拜登儿童色情” 故事 “头版新闻” 吗?

你认为小报 “头版新闻” 中的故事吗?

【宣称】

一个标题为 “拜登 ‘儿童色情’ 冲击” 的故事是澳大利亚的 “头版新闻”。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

In December 2020, a viral meme was shared on social media that claimed a story about U.S. President-elect Joe Biden’s son, Hunter Biden, was “front page news” in Australia. The article’s headline read: “Biden ‘Child Porn’ Shock.”

However, the meme’s claim was false. The story appeared in a tabloid newspaper. Further, it did not appear on the front page of that publication, and the front page did not appear to tease or even mention the story in any way:

Also, any scandal surrounding Hunter Biden wasn’t new news in December 2020. The story appeared in the Oct. 22, 2020, edition of the conservative Australian tabloid newspaper The Daily Telegraph. It claimed that Hunter Biden became “the hunted amid claims of un­der­age pics on his lap­top”:

THE on­go­ing story of al­leged cor­rup­tion and for­eign in­flu­ence trad­ing by the Bi­den fam­ily took a more sin­is­ter turn on Wed­nes­day (AEDT).

Speak­ing to the con­ser­va­tive Amer­i­can news out­let News­max, Pres­i­dent Don­ald Trump’s per­sonal lawyer Rudy Gi­u­liani said he had turned the hard drive re­port­edly left aban­doned by Hunter Bi­den, son of Demo­crat pres­i­den­tial can­di­date Joe Bi­den, at a Delaware repair shop over to state po­lice due to con­tents which he said in­cluded in­ap­pro­pri­ate text mes­sages and pic­tures of un­der­age girls.

Mr. Gi­u­liani said there were “nu­mer­ous” pic­tures which he de­scribed as be­ing of un­der­age girls. He also said there were text mes­sages from Hunter to Joe say­ing that he had been ac­cused of speak­ing naked to a 14-year-old girl on FaceTime.

[…]

The lap­top has rocked the pres­i­den­tial race as it ap­pears to pro­vide di­rect ev­i­dence of cash-for-in­flu­ence schemes in­volv­ing Hunter and coun­tries such as Ukraine and China.

We previously reported on rumors surrounding Biden’s son, which surfaced prior to the 2020 U.S. presidential election, as have the Associated Press, NBC News, and Fox News, among other news media outlets. We also debunked a false claim that said a photograph of Malia Obama’s credit card was found on Hunter Biden’s laptop, complete with lines of cocaine.

2020年12月7日
发表者 minici
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木芙蓉丨聊把一枝闲照水,明年何处对霜红

十月下旬,北国秋色正浓,友人从南京发来几张木芙蓉的照片,那样浓密红艳的花朵,是我记忆中木芙蓉的样子。上次见到这种花,还是多年前国庆节回家,在一家酒店的院墙外,当时我还不知道它的名字,但我记住了它的样子。木芙蓉在长江流域以及东部沿海诸省均有栽培,而北京似乎没有,这不能不说是一种遗憾。

 

↑重瓣木芙蓉

1.临水木芙蓉

作为锦葵科木槿属下的灌木或乔木,当我知道木芙蓉与木槿是近亲,恍然发现它们还真有相似之处。例如二者单朵花期都很短,通常朝开暮落,但花的数量多,前赴后继,所以一棵树的花期可以很长;等到花落的时候,都是整朵整朵地往下掉。友人发给我的照片中,有两张摄于灵谷寺的水边,树底下的水面像是铺了一层红毯。

 

↑南京灵谷寺水边的芙蓉,摄影,高惠

不过木芙蓉的花朵要比木槿大得多,尤其是重瓣的栽培品种,堪比牡丹或者芍药。国画里的木芙蓉就更像牡丹了,如果不看叶子,简直没法区分。它的叶子也好看,有点像梧桐,叶柄、小枝、花梗和花萼上都布满了细细的棉毛。

↑景敷四气.冬景图.12帧.清钱维城画.清乾隆时期.大都会博物馆藏本

木芙蓉开花,颜色由浅到深,初开时为白色或淡红色,最后变成深红,“正似美人初醉着”,所以古人将“一日间凡三换色”、“朝白午桃红晚大红者”称之为醉芙蓉。那一树白红相见的花朵也叫看它的人沉醉。相传成都曾经遍植木芙蓉,《群芳谱》引《成都记》云:

孟后主于成都城上遍种芙蓉,每至秋,四十里如锦绣,高下相照,因名锦城。以花染缯为帐,名芙蓉帐。

想必这也成都别名“蓉城”的原因。木芙蓉后来也成为成都市的市花。

 

↑唐寅《临水芙蓉图》

关于木芙蓉花朵之浓密,明代吴彦匡《花史》还记载了一则趣闻,说长沙许智老家中有二株“可庇亩余”的木芙蓉,花开时宾客云集,座中有个叫王子怀的人打赌说,花再多不会超过一万朵,否则愿意受罚。许智老命仆人采而数之,结果有一万三千朵之多。

南宋刘克庄写过两首关于木芙蓉的绝句:“湖上秋风起棹歌,万株映柳更依荷。老来不作繁华梦,一树池边已觉多。”“池上秋开一两丛,未妨冷淡伴诗翁。而今纵有看花意,不爱深红爱浅红。”两首诗的最后一句,正好涉及我们上面所说木芙蓉的特点。诗人抓住了这些特征,通过写花来表达晚年心境之凄凉,尽管他官居工部尚书,但毕竟国势日渐衰微。在他去世11年后,南宋一朝也走到了尽头。 [1]

 

↑宋徽宗赵佶芙蓉锦鸡图轴(现藏故宫博物院)

清乾隆年间曲家黄图珌称木芙蓉为秋花之最可爱、最浓艳者,对于如何观赏木芙蓉,其《看山阁闲笔》卷13“芳香部·赏花”有两则很有意思的记载:

芙蓉为秋色之最可爱者。余常以小船荡桨至秋江之畔,短笛空腔,坐花待月,恍疑深入花城,畅观锦绣也。

芙蓉为秋花之最秾艳而极妖妖者也。相赏必须纵饮,醉则投枕于其下。偶有客至,寻之不值,乃谓童子曰:“主人何往?”童子答曰:“顷已大醉,高卧芙蓉帐中矣。”

第一则是典型的文人风雅式赏花,其情其景,令人向往。然而为何要到“秋江之畔”?黄图珌接着给出答案 [2]

是花当栽于涧边溪畔,使其斜临水镜,而生动更觉可人。至山崖陆地,非所宜也。 

木芙蓉喜水,宜植于涧边溪畔,前人对此早有认识。古诗中写木芙蓉的,也多提到水。比如唐韩愈《木芙蓉》:“新开寒露丛,远比水间红。艳色宁相妒,嘉名偶自同。”北宋张耒《芙蓉》:“今年古寺摘芙蓉,憔悴真成泽畔翁。聊把一枝闲照水,明年何处对霜红。” 

 

清代文人李渔很喜欢木芙蓉,其《闲情偶寄》称赞木芙蓉说:“水芙蓉之于夏,木芙蓉之于秋,可谓二季功臣矣”,“二花之艳,相距不远;虽居岸上,如在水中”,然而水芙蓉生于池沼而不易得,木芙蓉则随地可植,“凡有篱落之家,此种必不可少。”李渔同时也强调,木芙蓉宜种于水边,“如或傍水而居,隔岸不见此花者,非至俗之人,即薄福不能消受之人也。”

 

↑湘绣芙蓉鹭丝图轴(道光年间,现藏故宫博物院)局部

 

芙蓉花谐音“荣华”,常与一只白鹭一同出现于国画、民间刺绣及年画上,寓意“一路荣华”。可以想见,木芙蓉在历史上应该颇受人们喜爱。

2.秋江芙蓉的风神标格

“芙蓉”一开始指的是荷花。对于“木芙蓉”之得名,李时珍在《本草纲目》中解释说:“此花艳如荷花,故有芙蓉、木莲之名。”木芙蓉首次出现于本草书籍(北宋《本草图经》)时即名为“地芙蓉”。但在唐诗中,“木芙蓉”已简称为“芙蓉”,这就容易使人混淆,没听说过木芙蓉的,可能会以为古诗词中的“芙蓉”都是荷花。毕竟相比之下,木芙蓉的名气要小得多。不过二者生境不同,花期错开,背后的文化寓意也有所区别。因此通过前后文语境,不难分辨“芙蓉”说的是荷花还是木芙蓉。

 

↑单瓣木芙蓉

与开于夏季的荷花不同,木芙蓉在百花凋残的秋天盛开,因此写木芙蓉的诗歌,其时令多在秋天。比如唐代白居易《木芙蓉花下招客饮》:“晚凉思饮两三杯,召得江头酒客来。莫怕秋无伴醉物,水莲花尽木莲开。”元末卢琦《题钱舜举木芙蓉》:“红妆初映酒杯酣,斜倚西风转不堪。霜后池塘秋欲尽,令人惆怅忆江南。” 秋天开花的植物本来就不多,木芙蓉不仅在秋天开,而且个头大、数量多,蔚为可观,怎不叫人喜欢?

木芙蓉因此又得名“据霜花”,历来吟咏木芙蓉的诗歌,多赞颂它耐寒的品质。例如王安石《拒霜花》:“落尽群花独自芳,红英浑欲拒严霜。开元天子千秋节,戚里人家承露囊。”苏轼认为“据霜花”这个名称不够恰当,与其说“据霜”,不如说是“宜霜”,其《和陈述古〈拒霜花〉》云:

千林扫作一番黄,只有芙蓉独自芳。

唤作拒霜知未称,细思却是最宜霜。

也因此,木芙蓉常常与秋菊一同在文人笔下。例如欧阳修《木芙蓉》:“种处雪消春始动,开时霜落雁初过。谁栽金菊丛相近,织出新番蜀锦窠。”苏轼《王伯扬所藏赵昌芙蓉》:“溪边野芙蓉,花木相媚好。坐看池莲尽,独伴霜菊槁。

这样一种孤高、冷傲的风神标格,自然与春天的桃花、杏花有所不同。唐代高蟾的这首《下第后上永崇高侍郎》就以木芙蓉自比:

天上碧桃和露种,日边红杏倚云栽。

芙蓉生在秋江上,不向东风怨未开

这是高蟾在落第后写给科举考试主管部门礼部侍郎的一首诗。诗的前两句,“天上碧桃”与“日边红杏”,是指那些倚仗权势而求得功名之人,后两句以秋江芙蓉自喻。“江上”与“天上”、“日边”相比,地位悬殊,正是诗人落榜的主要原因。但他并不因此而抱怨或气馁,“不向东风怨未开”,即不去埋怨为何不在春天开花,因为等到秋高气爽的时候,木芙蓉自会在江边怒放。不怨天、不尤人,背后暗藏的是诗人的自信。高蟾这种“不卑不亢,毫无胁肩谄笑的媚态”,与秋江芙蓉孤高的格调是一致的 [3]。 

 

对于高蟾诗中木芙蓉的“不怨”,后人也有沿用,例如明人徐贲《雨后慰池上芙蓉》:“池上新晴偶独过,芙蓉寂寞照寒波。相看莫厌秋情薄,若在春风怨更多。”明僧文湛《题画芙蓉》:“江边谁种木芙蓉,寂寞芳姿照水红。莫怪秋来更多怨,年年不得见春风。”倒是谢迁这首《芙蓉》写得最有力量:

傍水施朱意自真,幽栖非是避芳尘。

已呼晚菊为兄弟,更为秋江作主人

谢迁是明代中期著名阁臣,官至兵部尚书兼东阁大学士,时人称为“天下三贤相”之一,《明史》评价他“秉节直亮”、“刚严之节始终不渝”,我们从这首《芙蓉》可以感受到他的气魄不凡。

对于木芙蓉,清代《广群芳谱》卷39有一句总结性的评价总之,此花清姿雅质,独殿众芳,秋江寂寞,不怨东风,可称俟命之君子矣。

木芙蓉的这种形象气质、精神品格,被曹雪芹化用在了黛玉和晴雯的身上。在《红楼梦》中,黛玉抽到的芙蓉签、宝玉为晴雯所作《芙蓉女儿诔》,都是木芙蓉。

 

↑冬季,木芙蓉果实

3《红楼梦》里的木芙蓉

《红楼梦》第六十三回“寿怡红群芳开夜宴,死金丹独艳理亲丧”,黛玉抽到芙蓉签的一段是这么写的: 

 

香菱便又掷了个六点,该黛玉掣。黛玉默默的想道:“不知还有什么好的被我掣着方好。”一面伸手取了一根,只见上面画着一枝芙蓉,题着“风露清愁”四字,那面一句旧诗,道是:

莫怨东风当自嗟。

注云:“自饮一杯,牡丹陪饮一杯。”众人笑说:“这个好极。除了他别人不配作芙蓉。”黛玉也自笑了。于是饮了酒,便掷了个二十点,该着袭人。

签上题诗“莫怨东风当自嗟”,出自欧阳修《再和明妃曲》:

汉宫有佳人,天子初未识。一朝随汉使,远嫁单于国。绝色天下无,一失难再得。虽能杀画工,于事竟何益?耳目所及尚如此,万里安能制夷狄?汉计诚已拙,女色难自夸。明妃去时泪,洒向枝上花。狂风日暮起,漂泊落谁家。红颜胜人多薄命,莫怨东风当自嗟。

王昭君虽绝色无双、红颜胜人,但由于没有贿赂画工毛延寿,最终被单于选中而远嫁异乡,命薄如此,也不能埋怨谁,只能嗟叹自己命途不济。最后两句,“红颜胜人多薄命”,这句话用来形容林黛玉正合适;“莫怨东风当自嗟”,明显化用自高蟾“芙蓉开在秋江上,不向东风怨未开”。所以说,黛玉抽到的芙蓉签是木芙蓉,上面这首诗中的“枝上花”也是。“风露清愁”,一方面是说木芙蓉的秋江寂寞,一方面也指向昭君和黛玉的红颜薄命。红颜之薄命,也与木芙蓉的朝开暮落相照应,正如唐代李嘉佑《秋朝木芙蓉》所言:“平明露滴垂红脸,似有朝开暮落悲。”

 

↑图自《Plantes de la Chine》

大观园众女儿中,黛玉才貌出众,性情孤高,独具一格,完全称得上“清姿雅质,独殿众芳”,所以众人才说只有黛玉配得上木芙蓉。“黛玉也自笑了”,可见她对这枚签也感到满意。

牡丹(薛宝钗)陪饮一杯,也不是平白无故。从外形上看,相比于荷花,重瓣木芙蓉其实更像牡丹或者芍药。李时珍《本草纲目》就指出木芙蓉“秋半始着花,花类牡丹、芍药”。宋代诗人郑域《木芙蓉》直言木芙蓉可与与牡丹相媲美:

妖红弄色绚池台,不作匆匆一夜开。

若遇春时占春榜,牡丹未必作花魁

虽然木芙蓉与牡丹很像,但在人们心中,木芙蓉的地位怎能与花魁牡丹相抗衡呢?在北宋初年的花卉排行榜《花经》中,木芙蓉以“九品一命”排名垫底,到明代《瓶花谱》,木芙蓉也才“六品四命。”宋代周必大《二老堂诗话》说木芙蓉“能共余容争几许,得人轻处只缘多”,“余容”即芍药。所以,让牡丹陪芙蓉饮酒一杯,是有意将钗、黛二人放在这里对比,牡丹与木芙蓉地位之悬殊,正好暗示钗、黛二人身世之异,“金玉良缘”结局之不同。 

 

↑齐白石 芙蓉蚱蜢

《红楼们》里与木芙蓉有关的另一个角色是晴雯。晴雯死时正是八月时节,园中池上芙蓉正开,丫头见景生情,便说晴雯做了芙蓉花神。宝玉听后十分认同,“不但不为怪,亦且去悲而生喜,乃指芙蓉笑道:‘此花也须得这样一个人去司掌。”为了祭奠晴雯,宝玉写了一篇《芙蓉女儿诔》,对这位曾经侍奉自己的丫鬟有着极高的评价:

忆女儿曩生之昔,其为质则金玉不足喻其贵,其为性则冰雪不足喻其洁,其为神则星日不足喻其精,其为貌则花月不足喻其色。

这句话放在黛玉身上也毫不过分,二人在相貌、性情上都有相似之处,都称得上“清姿雅质,独殿众芳”。其实从清末时起,即有“晴为黛影”的说法。 [4] 这在宝玉祭奠晴雯时就有明显的暗示。例如当黛玉从芙蓉花中走来时,丫鬟说:“不好,有鬼!晴雯真来显魂了!”当宝玉修改诔文,对黛玉念出“茜纱窗下,我本无缘;黄土垄中,卿何薄命”之时,黛玉忡然而变色,心有“无限狐疑乱拟”。这其实也是在预示黛玉的结局。 [5] 此处的“卿何薄命”,也正好照应芙蓉签上那句诗的前一句——红颜胜人多薄命。

也有人说黛玉抽到的芙蓉签是荷花。“出淤泥而不染,濯清涟而不妖”,这种君子之风与黛玉也有些相配,但是荷花与签上的题诗似乎沾不上边,与后文宝玉祭晴雯的情节亦无关联,也只怕会辜负曹公的良苦用心。

 

 

 


[1] “刘克庄是南宋的长寿诗人,享年八十余。他死时距离南宋灭亡只有十一年,故他的晚年是在国力衰微、民生多艰的局势下度过的,尽管他本人甚至做到工部尚书兼侍读的高官,但其心境仍寂寞凄凉。这在本诗中有充分的反映。”见刘明今等:《宋元诗观止》,学林出版社,2015年,第68-69页。
[2] (清)黄图珌:《看山阁闲笔》,上海古籍出版社,2013年,第189页。
[3] “《唐才子传》称‘蟾本寒士,……性倜傥离群,稍尚气节。人与千金无故,即身死不受’,又说‘其胸次磊块’等等。秋江芙蓉孤高的格调与作者的人品是统一的。……诗人向‘大人物’上书,不卑不亢,毫无胁肩谄笑的媚态,这在封建时代,是较为难得的。说‘未开’而非‘不开’,这是因为芙蓉开花要等到秋高气爽的时候。这里似乎表现出作者对自己才具的自信。”见周啸天等:《唐诗鉴赏辞典》,上海辞书出版社,1983年,第1314。
[4] 陈其泰(1800—1864)《红楼梦回评》:“或问《红楼梦》写黛玉如此,写晴雯亦如此,则何也?曰:晴雯,黛玉之影子也。写晴雯所以写黛玉也。”晚清张新之《红楼梦读法》:“是书叙钗黛比肩,袭人、晴雯乃二人影子也。”
[5] “《芙蓉诔》诔晴雯实诔黛玉,这个芙蓉花神的哀悼意义和象征意义是晴雯黛玉共用的,其真实指向是林黛玉,它预示着林黛玉最终的结局也是‘仙逝’。”见陶玮:《芙蓉辨——论黛玉晴雯之“芙蓉”》,《红楼梦学刊》,2010年第4期,第199页。

 

 

 

作者简介:江汉汤汤,企业职员 / 中国美术馆志愿者讲解员 / 自由撰稿人,个人公众号“古典植物园”,现居北京。

图文编辑:蒋某人

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

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2020年12月7日
发表者 minici
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金钱松 | 金钱叶落冬日至

 

11月7日去杭州太子湾看了金钱松。一整排金钱松被种植在碧水和青山之间。等它们黄了一定很好看,我想。

 

↑杭州太子湾的一排金钱松。11月7日。

 

11月29日再来时,一整排金钱松却基本都秃完了,只剩下头尾的几棵还有余叶。金钱松秋叶的色彩,与水杉、落羽杉相近,都是橘红色。如果太阳好一些,金钱松叶片边缘被照得透亮,整棵树都金闪闪的。可惜29日那天天气太阴了。

 

↑杭州太子湾的一排金钱松。11月29日。

 

金钱松(Pseudolarix amabilis) ,是松科金钱松属植物。之所以叫“金钱”,是因为它叶片的生长方式。约二十余枚小叶圆周排列,形如羽扇、圆盘、钱币。一到秋季叶片金黄,金钱松便因此得名。

 

↑金钱松叶片

 

作为一种松树,金钱松树上自然也会结球果。不过它的球果基本不会整个儿掉下来,在树枝上就一瓣一瓣散开、飘落了,这点跟雪松相似。

 

↑高枝上的金钱松球果

 

它的种子具翅,能够旋转着飞行。落叶季节,随着球果的解体,种子被释放并飘向远处。

 

↑金钱松种子

 

当然也会有意外发生。有些球果的种鳞牢牢抓住种子不放,一同啪嗒掉到地上。有些种子不肯放开自己的“另一半”,这样也没法儿飞太远。

 

↑种子和种鳞

↑不肯放开另一半的种子

金钱松种子的散播与落叶基本是同时开始的,在树下松软的落叶层中,掩埋了不少没能远走高飞的种子。虽然站在植物的立场上,没有成功“释放”的种子是个悲伤的事。但能捡到金钱松种子我可是开心得很,小心翼翼地捡几枚薄如蝉翼的种子回家收藏。

 

 

叶片凋落后,能在树枝两侧看到“短枝”。短枝看起来分节,每一节,代表了它一年的生长。每一年新叶都会从短枝顶端长出,每一年落叶都会在短枝上留下一节。我们熟悉的银杏也有这样的短枝。

 

大约每年三月底,金钱松短枝顶端发新绿,不到半个月时间叶幕就完全展开了。

 

↑金钱松的短枝和新芽

 

金钱松是我国特有树种,主要生长在东南山区中。它们喜欢湿润的环境,在西湖群山、天目山上的溪流、水塘边,经常能发现野生金钱松。

 

↑天目山上的一棵野生金钱松

 

园林和庭院中偶尔也能看到金钱松种植。在国际上,金钱松则享有盛名,与洋杉、雪松、金松和北美红杉合称为世界五大庭院观赏树种。

 

Curtis, W., Curtis’s botanical magazine (1800-1948) Bot. Mag.

 

 

作者:蒋某人
图片:蒋某人(除注明外)
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2020年12月7日
发表者 minici
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巴旦木丨杏子何如巴榄良

每回冬天来的时候,我都会想起以前上大学的时候吃过的杏仁。后来我才知道那种美味的杏仁名叫美国大杏仁,不同于中国本土杏仁。美国大杏仁在植物学上的正式名叫扁桃Amygdalus communis L.),蔷薇科桃属,是一种桃而不是杏。相比于“扁桃”,它的另一个名字“巴旦木”更为人知,其主要食用部分是果仁,外形与杏仁相似,个头也较大,故谓之“大杏仁”。

 

扁桃在唐朝已传入我国,宋元时已是较为普遍的小食,为何今人称之为“美国大杏仁”?殊不知,这一寻常的坚果背后,隐藏着一部年代久远的民族史和外交史。

 

↑“美国大杏仁”巴旦木

 

1.巴旦杏诸名

 

据《中国植物志》,扁桃是舶来品,原产于亚洲西部,生于低至中海拔的山区,常见于多石砾的干旱坡地,如今我国新疆、陕西、甘肃等地区有少量栽培。

 

美国学者劳费尔19世纪初所著《中国伊朗编》介绍:“伊朗是巴旦杏的中心产地,一面传播到欧洲,一面传播到印度、西藏和中国其他地方。” [1] 巴旦杏即扁桃,其传入中国的历史可以追溯至唐朝。唐代段成式(803-863)《酉阳杂俎》载[2]

 

偏桃,出波斯国,波斯呼为婆淡。树长五六丈,围四五尺,叶似桃而阔大。三月开花,白色。花落结实,状如桃子而形偏,故谓之偏桃。其肉苦涩,不可啖,核中仁甘甜,西域诸国并珍之。

 

由此可见,“偏桃”乃以果实的外形“状如桃子而形偏”得名。据《中国植物志》,扁桃“果实斜卵形或长圆卵形,扁平。”那么这里的“偏”应作“扁”来讲。而“扁”又通“匾”,宋以后的文献中,“偏桃”也被写作“扁桃”、“匾桃”。

 

巴旦木成熟果实

 

扁桃在波斯国被称为“婆淡”,据劳费尔考证,“婆淡”是中古波斯语 vadam 和新波斯语 bādām 的译音。[3] 元代忽思慧《饮膳正要》(成书于1330年)称之为“八担杏”[4],《本草纲目》(成书于1578年)作“巴旦杏”[5],《清稗类钞·植物类》(成书于民国初年)记为“叭哒杏”、“八达杏”。以上诸名与“婆淡”相近,都是从波斯语音译而来。《中国植物志》称巴旦杏为维语,其根源也当是波斯语。

 

除了以上名称外,史籍中还能见到“巴榄”“杷榄”“芭榄”等名,与“婆淡”音近[6],为叙利亚语 palam 的音译。[7] “杷榄”、“芭榄”这些名字则经常出现于耶律楚材(1190-1244)那些众多记录西域生活的诗文。

1218年耶律楚材随成吉思汗西征,在乌兹别克斯坦等中亚地区生活长达6年之久,杷榄或者芭榄,是令他印象深刻的一种植物,常常与同样源自西域的葡萄一同出现于他的诗歌中,例如《赠蒲察元帅七首其二:“葡萄架底葡萄酒,杷榄花前杷榄仁”。“杷榄仁”就是扁桃仁。耶律楚材东归4年后写成《西游录》,其中提到一个以“芭榄”命名的城市:“芭榄城边皆芭榄园,故以名。其花如杏而微淡,叶如桃而差小,冬季而花,夏盛而实。

 

↑果核内的种子

 

就在耶律楚材西行的第三年(1220)春天,应成吉思汗之邀,74岁高龄的长春真人丘处机(1148—1227)亦收拾行囊,西行万里,历时2年抵达今阿富汗境内的兴都库什山,见到成吉思汗后劝其“敬天爱民”。随行弟子十八人中的李志常(1193—1255),记录下沿途的山川草木、风土人情,是为《长春真人西游记》。此书上卷所记途中“杷榄”云[8]

 

壬午之春正月,杷榄始华,类小桃,俟秋采其实,食之,味如胡桃。

 

“壬午之春正月”为一年之始,丘处机和耶律楚材所至的中亚地区,彼时天气尚冷,所以耶律楚材会说芭榄“冬季而花”。

 

↑盛开的巴旦木花朵 由Alessandro Zangrilli [图1]

 

梳理下来,作为舶来品的扁桃,在历史上曾有过不少音译名。不过,自从《本草纲目》将“巴旦杏”作为条目名后,明清不少类书及本草书籍写到这种植物时,皆称之为“巴旦杏”。[9]

 

相比之下,包括“扁桃”在内的其他名称则渐渐被遗忘。不过在晚清民国时,邻国日本依然称之为扁桃[10],大概这个物种在唐以后东渡日本,源自《酉阳杂俎》中名这一名称也在日本流传下来。

 

虽然巴旦杏在我国北方有栽培,但一直到清末时,民间商贩尤以产自国外的巴旦杏仁为美。[11] 18世纪,也就是清朝的雍正、乾隆时期,巴旦杏被西班牙殖民者带入美国。美国加州地区适宜于巴旦杏的生长,如今已是巴旦杏仁的主产区之一。

 

↑“美国大杏仁” 由Luigi Chiesa [图2]

今天国内市场上的巴旦杏仁多从美国进口,所以才被翻译为“美国大杏仁”。但这个名字毕竟与中国本土杏仁相混淆,导致本土杏仁在市场上受到冲击,直到2012年闹了一场与之相关的“正名”官司,市面上的美国大杏仁遂更名为巴旦木或扁桃仁。[12]

 

2.源自西域的美食

 

扁桃仁这种坚果,刚传入我国时就享有美名。前文在引用《酉阳杂俎》时说到,巴旦杏“其肉苦涩,不可啖,核中仁甘甜,西域诸国并珍之”。据说当年波斯王每餐都会吃这种坚果,类似我们今天的“每日坚果”。[13]

 

南宋时,扁桃仁是茶坊酒肆中常见的小食。吴自牧(生卒年不详)在宋亡后回忆故国都城临安(今杭州)城市风貌,其《梦粱录》“分茶酒店”条载“杭城食店,多是效学京师人,开张亦效御厨体式,贵官家品件。”店中所售食物品种甚多,各种水果制品“干果子”中包含“巴榄子”[14]。既然是仿照“御厨体式”,“贵官家品件”,可见巴榄子也曾供皇室和贵族享用。

 

↑仇英版《清明上河图》,左侧店铺售卖各色细果,其中可能有巴旦杏

绍兴二十一年(1151)十月,宋高宗巡幸清河郡王张俊(1086-1154)府第,为了迎接圣驾,河郡王准备了一桌豪华筵席,除了下酒菜十五盏之外,还包括饭前、饭中、饭后所用各色水果、干果、香药、蜜饯、脯腊,足足有三十道正菜,一百多道冷菜小食。这还不包括给其余内侍、朝官的。

《武林旧事》的作者周密(1232-1298)记录下这份令人瞠目的菜单。其中,饭前“垂手八盘子”中就有巴榄子:”拣蜂儿、番蒲萄、香莲事件念珠、巴榄子、大金橘、新椰子象牙板、小橄榄、榆柑子。“光是一个餐前果盘就有来自天南海北的各种果品。

 

设宴的主人张俊何许人?南宋初年,他是与岳飞、韩世忠齐名的军事将领,后来投靠秦桧,转为投降派,进而“诬陷岳飞之子岳云谋反,把一代民主英雄送上了风波亭。”[15] 此后张俊一路飞黄腾达,一人得道鸡犬升天,成为临安远近闻名的官宦豪门,从这份菜单可以瞥见其家资之厚。

 

↑各种品种的巴旦木种子 由 Maria Ala, Calogero Liotta. [图3]

 

元代时,扁桃已在我国北方有稳定的种植。元类书《事林广记》卷十二将“巴榄子”列为北果,注曰“北果次者”,以与“金杏(并北果之佳者)”对比,金杏是杏Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.)中味道甘甜的品种。这样的对比当是指果肉而言。[16] 杨允孚(1354年前后在世)《滦京杂咏》有诗记录今内蒙古锡林郭勒地区的扁桃,诗中所赞美的亦当是扁桃仁:

 

海红不似花红好,杏子何如巴榄良。

更说高丽生菜美,总输山后蘑菰香。

 

滦京又名滦阳,位于今内蒙古自治区锡林郭勒盟正蓝旗旗政府以东二十公里处,因滦河上游流城南而得名。[17] 中统元年(1260),元世祖忽必烈在此继位。

杨允孚曾在元顺帝(1333-1370在位)时任尚食供奉官,掌管皇帝膳食,[18] 他在这首诗后注:“海红、花红、巴榄,皆果名。高丽人以生菜裹饭食之,尖山产蘑菰。”而杏子当指本土杏仁,本土杏仁哪里比得上巴榄仁呢?御厨杨允孚此言甚是。

 

↑巴旦木花 由Alessandro Zangrilli [图4]

 

从元代进入明代,扁桃仁成为人们饮茶时常吃的小食,如同英国人下午茶所配黄油饼干。李时珍《本草纲目·果部第二十九卷·巴旦杏》:“其核如梅核,壳薄而仁甘美。点茶食之,味如榛子。西人以充方物。”“点茶”是盛行于宋代的一种沏茶方法,与唐代的煎茶法不同,点茶是将烧好的沸水直接注入装有茶叶末的茶盏中。时下一些连锁咖啡店里有买小包装的扁桃仁,点一杯柠檬红茶,再配几颗扁桃仁,就可以感受明代人的饮茶趣味。

 

李时珍所谓“西人以充方物”,是说西域人以之为特产。大约在明万历二年(1574),扁桃作为埃及的特产,被载入当时外交使节必备的参考书《殊域周咨录》:“古名密昔儿……其产金、银、珠、西锦、千年枣、马、独峰驼、巴榄、葡萄。”[19] 而清初王世祯《香祖笔记》则说:“巴旦杏出哈烈国,今北方皆有之。”哈烈国即今阿富汗赫里河北岸之赫拉特。我猜测,抗旱性强的巴旦杏,在陆上丝绸之路上的大部分国家想必都有产出。

 

巴旦木 由 מירבמזרחי [图5]

 

3.耶律楚材与杷榄花

 

作为蔷薇科桃属植物,扁桃也像桃树一样在早春开花,其花亦盛,可堪一景。杨万里(1127-1206)《和张功父桤木巴榄花韵》所咏即桤木及扁桃花:

 

南湖窠木已交加,种榄栽桤更北涯。
生眼错呼为夜合,新莺知不是桃花。
绿阴四合藏云屋,翠浪全机织素纱。
桂隐主人臞见骨,不餐酥酪却餐茶。

 

“新莺知不是桃花”所指就是扁桃花。颈联形容桤木之高大茂盛,尾联二句所指当是扁桃仁:“臞”意为消瘦,“不餐酥酪却餐茶”,所说当是上文李时珍所谓巴旦杏仁可供点茶而食。

 

在耶律楚材《湛然居士文集》中,杷榄以及“杷榄花”是常见的意象,且通常与葡萄酒或葡萄架对举。例如《赠蒲察元帅七首》其一“花开杷榄芙渠淡,酒泛葡萄琥珀浓”,《十七日早行始忆昨日立春》“杷榄花前风弄麦,葡萄架底雨沾尘”,《西域蒲华城赠蒲察元帅》“琉璃种里葡萄酒,琥珀瓶中杷榄花”,《西域河中十咏》其一“葡萄亲酿酒,杷榄看开花”,等等,共有10首之多。

 

旦木花 Vincent van Gogh, Almond Blossom, 1890

 

据王国维《耶律文正公年谱》,以上这些诗歌作于1220年至1222年间,彼时耶律楚材随成吉思汗西征,上述诗题中的“蒲华城”是指今乌兹别克斯坦布哈拉,“西域河中”即西辽国首都河中府,今乌兹别克斯坦撒马尔罕。说到这里,请允许我花点篇幅介绍一下耶律楚材,这是一位值得后人感佩的元朝开国功勋。

 

耶律楚材,字晋卿,辽朝东丹王后裔,金朝尚书右丞之子。自幼接受儒家教育,在金朝官至左右司员外郎。成吉思汗攻占金中都后,听闻耶律楚材之名,收其为辅臣。此后,“身长八尺,美髯宏声”的耶律楚材跟随成吉思汗“既怀八荒,遂定中原”,于元太宗三年(1231)官至中书令(宰相),在成吉思汗、窝阔台汗两朝效力近三十年。他致力于“以儒治国”,定制度、设科举、省刑罚、薄赋敛、劝农桑、赈困穷等等,对于巩固元初统治功不可没,为忽必烈建立蒙古帝国打下坚实基础,同时对于促进游牧民族汉化,保存并延续中原农耕文明作出贡献。非凡的政绩之外,耶律楚材亦是饱读之士,“凡星历、医卜、杂算、内算、音律、儒释、异国之书,无不通究。”其笃学精神令我辈敬仰,他曾对儿子们说:“公务虽多,昼则属官,夜则属私,亦可学也。”[20]

 

元代马真后三年(1244),耶律楚材猝然离世,年仅55岁。据宋子贞《中书令耶律公神道碑》,耶律楚材死后,“蒙古诸人哭之如丧其亲戚。和林为之罢市,绝音乐者数日。天下士大夫莫不茹泣相吊。”其为政为人,可见一斑。

 

旦木花 Vincent van Gogh (1853 – 1890), Arles, March 1888

 

回头再看耶律楚材西征路上所写的那些诗句,没有金戈铁马、黄沙弥漫,更没有尸横遍野、血流成河,反而是一派国泰民安、岁月静好的景象,例如《戏作二首》其二:

 

太守多才民富强,风光特不让苏杭。

葡萄酒熟红珠滴,杷榄花开紫雪香。

异域丝簧无律吕,胡姬声调自宫商。

人生行乐无如此,何必咨嗟忆故乡。

 

而对于异国风情,他亦流连忘返,颇有乐不思蜀之感。《西域河中十咏》其二云:“寂寞河中府,临流结草庐。开尊倾美酒,掷网得新鱼。有客同联句,无人独看书。天涯获此乐,终老又何如。”又如《西域蒲华城赠蒲察元帅》:“琉璃种里葡萄酒,琥珀瓶中杷榄花。万里遐方获此乐,不妨终老在天涯。”从中可见耶律楚材随遇而安的乐观精神,而这样太平的局面,或许也与他推行儒家仁政的理念有关,其《西域河中十咏》其三“酿酒无输课,耕田不纳租。西行万余里,谁谓乃良图”,可以看出他的治国理想的一个侧面。

 

让我有些惊讶的是,在西域众多的风物中,诗人尤其对葡萄、葡萄酒,杷榄、杷榄花情有独钟。大概是因为此二物为当地所重,又深受诗人喜爱的缘故吧。

 

对于我来说,扁桃仁的记忆是与冬天有关的。那时候来头一年到北京上学,觉得冬天异常的难熬,风吹着耳朵像刀割似的,路面上有水的地方都结了冰,我在学校的便民市场买耳罩时,第一次见到这种坚果,尝了尝,真不错。当然,价格也不菲,一小袋要五六十元,差不多一周的生活费,实在是有些奢侈的。所以似乎只在冬天来的时候才会吃。那时候准备期末考试,晚自习常常上到很晚,饿了就嚼几颗,作为对自己的犒劳。毕业后的某年冬天,我再回到学校,路过便民市场时,不自觉就走了进去,看见杏仁还在那儿,卖杏仁的大姐也还在那儿,莫名觉得很感动。大姐的脸蛋还是冻得通红,还是站在小摊的中间,守着她衣食的来源。

 

 

 


[1] (美)劳费尔著,林筠因译:《中国伊朗编》,商务印书馆,2016年,第248页。

[2] (唐)段成式:《酉阳杂俎》,中华书局,1981年,第178页。

[3] 《中国伊朗编》,第250页。

[4] “八担仁,味甘,无毒。止咳,下气,消心腹逆闷。其果出回回田地。”见(元)忽思慧著,张秉伦、方晓阳译注:《饮膳正要》,上海古籍出版社,第387页。

[5] 《本草纲目·果部第二十九卷·巴旦杏》另载其异名为“忽鹿麻”,忽鹿麻乃波斯枣。“忽鹿麻乃波斯文khurmā之译音,华言枣也。李时珍谓巴旦又名忽鹿麻,大误。忽鹿麻,《辍耕录》卷二七金果条作苦鲁麻,《新唐书》卷二二一下《佛菻传》作鹘莽。鹘莽,波斯枣也。有作千年枣者,又有作万年枣者。”见张星烺《中西交通史料汇编》,中华书局,2003年,1127页。

[6] 贝烈史耐德:“旅行者耶律楚材和长春二人所用的‘杷榄’一词也许是bādām的译音。”见《中国伊朗编》,第252页。

[7] 国家中药管理局编委会:《中华本草》,上海科学技术出版社出版,1999年,第四册,第73页。

[8] (元)李志常著,尚衍斌、黄太勇校注:《长春真人西游记校注》,中央民族大学出版社,2016年,第161页。(元)孙锡《长春真人西游记序》:“门人李志常,从行者也。掇其所历,而为之记,凡山川道里之险易,水土风气之差殊,与夫衣服、饮食、百果、草木、禽虫之别,粲然靡不毕载。”

[9] 方以智《通雅·植物》卷四十三:“巴旦杏不堪食,而仁甘于榛松、于榧。”王世祯《香祖笔记》:“巴旦杏出哈烈国,今北方皆有之。京师者实大而甘,山东者实小肉薄,少津液。土人贱之,不食。其仁甘可以佐葅。”《植物名实图考·果类四十五种·杏》:“回部东关出者,仁大充果实,即巴旦杏仁也。”

[10] “杏仁味皆苦,而叭哒杏独甘。《本草》作巴旦杏,或谓之八达杏……日本谓之扁桃。其仁亦有甜苦二种,甜者供食,苦者入药,并制为油及苦扁桃水以治病。吾国入药者,多用寻常杏仁,故遂以此为甜杏之专称耳。”见(清)徐珂:《清稗类钞》,中华书局,1981年,第5881-5882页。

[11] “八达杏本产于西域,今甜杏,北方随处皆有,商贩以来自口外者良,视之甚重,犹藦菇之重口藦也。”见《清稗类钞》,第5881页。

[12] 赵武平:《从“美国大杏仁”到‘巴旦木’》,《读书》,2014年07期,第68页。

[13] “波斯王每餐必有一定数量的甘甜杏仁。”见《中国伊朗编》,第248页。

[14] (宋)吴自牧《梦粱录》卷16《分茶酒店》:“更有干果子,如锦荔、木弹、京枣、枣圈、香莲、串桃、条梨、旋胜番糖、糖霜、番桃、松子、巴榄子、人面子、嘉庆子……”

[15] (宋)周密著,李小龙、赵锐评注:《武林旧事(插图本)》,中华书局,2007年,第241页。

[16] 明代顾起元《说略》:“北果之佳者,曰鹦哥舌、曰醉杨妃、曰宜母子、曰嘉庆子、曰波罗蜜、曰银桃、曰金杏、曰栝子仁、曰巴榄子”这里的“巴榄子”当是巴榄之果仁。

[17] 上都在英语中的写法是Xanadu。Xanadu首次出现于英国著名湖畔诗人柯勒律治1797年所写的《忽必烈汗》,这篇浪漫主义诗歌的巅峰之作,描述的就是诗人在梦中见到的忽必烈汗建于上都的花园。“由于柯勒律治在英国文学史上的盛名以及此诗的广泛流行,Xanadu不仅成为上都的标准译名,而且还具备了桃花源一般的特殊意义。这一语义演化过程,多少类似于香巴拉向香格里拉的发展。”见罗新:《从大都到上都——在古道上重新发现中国》,新星出版社,2018年,第9页。

[18] 《四库总目提要·滦京杂咏》。

[19] 见《殊域周咨录》卷12。《殊域周咨录》为嘉靖三十八年(1559)进士严从简(生卒年不详)所撰,共24卷。该书主要介绍大明王朝周边各国,以及与明朝有交往的国家和地区之人文风俗、山川地理、交往历史等。其将周边国家按地理方位分为东夷、西戎、南蛮、北狄、东北夷,由于将女真称为东北夷,该书在清代被列为禁书。

[20] 宋子贞:《中书令耶律公神道碑》。

[图1] 由Alessandro Zangrilli – 自己的作品,公有领域,//commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3576705

[图2] 由Luigi Chiesa – 自己的作品,CC BY-SA 3.0,//commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3663685

[图3] //g.co/arts/sP517QuBo1XgDXsMA

[图4] 由Alessandro Zangrilli – 自己的作品,公有领域,//commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3576705

[图5] By מירבמזרחי – Own work, CC0,//commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=12397759

作者简介:江汉汤汤,企业职员 / 中国美术馆志愿者讲解员 / 自由撰稿人,个人公众号“古典植物园”,现居北京。

图文编辑:蒋某人

本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可

//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.zh

转载请务必保留以上声明



2020年12月7日
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拐枣 | 这种“干树枝”,吃起来居然甜如蜜

 

上周日杭州的天气还不错,连日阴霾的天幕总算是透了些阳光。这些日子里的阳光就像是只橘猫,踮着猫似的步伐,悄悄的。它蜷起来打盹,震落枝头上的叶片和果实,让天气回暖了,然后接着走。

 

在外头的人都沉迷于它带来的色彩和温暖。我也是不例外的,脱下羽绒服,拍着秋叶、捡着果子。可惜大部分果子是不能吃(难吃)的,这个时候,西湖群山里捡来直接能入口的只有南酸枣和拐枣。

 

↑西湖边有人捡来一大把拐枣

 

南酸枣8月份开始就陆陆续续的落了,而要到10月才偶尔能看到有人在捡拐枣、或是推着小车叫卖。但这时还不是吃拐枣的时候。没有经过霜打的拐枣,味道就像没熟的柿子,涩的很。

 

立冬以后,掉在地上的拐枣才可算是一种美食。你可一定要鼓起勇气尝尝,毕竟谁能想到这些七歪八扭的干树枝,一口咬下去竟饱藏甜蜜呢?

↑绿色的小球就是枳椇的果实

 

↑果柄才是食用部位

 

拐枣,来自鼠李科(Rhamnaceae)枳椇属(Hovenia)的植物们。比较特殊的是,枳椇的食用部分不是果实,而是果柄。打个比方,好比苹果的柄和果上下对调了。

↑果实裂开,露出种子

 

枳椇果实看起来像是一个带盖子的小容器,里面塞了两到四枚种子,但没有果肉。果柄却膨大,充满糖分、蜜水。待到果实外皮变白、发脆时,果柄也就到了最甜蜜的时候。雀鸟、松鼠前来取食果柄时,震动会让果实整个儿脱落下来。

 

↑图自《诗经名物图解》

 

 

果柄,也就是拐枣,的别名还有很多,像是金勾勾,万寿果,糖罐子,鸡爪梨等等。由于它实在太甜,《尔雅》中这么写:”翼古者,人君燕食所加,庶羞。“ 说就连甘蔗都比不过它。《诗经》中:“南山有枸,北山有楰。“ 一句中的枸,指的也是拐枣。

 

 

↑枸(狗),图自《诗经名物图解》

 

除了直接吃,拐枣还可以酿酒、泡酒。它里面的糖分太多,以至于放着几天,就会自己冒出酒味来。到了12月,枳椇枝头叶片几乎落尽,还残留的拐枣往往也满是酒味,不那么好吃了(或许也有人更喜欢这样的拐枣)。

 

↑12月的枳椇树

 

但比较神奇的是,传统中医却认为枳椇能解酒。《本草》记载:”枳椇,一名木蜜。以木为屋,屋中酒则味薄。注云:昔有南人,修舍用此木。误有一片落在酒瓮中,其酒化为水味。“ 就过于神奇了,西有耶稣能把水变酒,东有枳椇能把酒变水。来,人们则般收集枳椇种子——枳椇子,与葛根搭配做解酒用途,现代中医药研究也证实了这一功效。

 

↑枳椇子

 

其他几个季节的枳椇就比较缺乏辨识度了,主要得看叶子。叶片近心形,叶脉为典型的三出脉。

 

↑枳椇叶片

↑枳椇花

 

 

特别声明:请勿将本文内容视为用药建议。如需用药指导,请联系执业医师、药师,并遵医嘱。

作者:蒋某人
图片:蒋某人(除注明外)
本作品采用 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) 许可协议进行许可
//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.zh
转载请务必保留以上声明

 

2020年12月7日
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来自 “Laverne & Shirley” 的 “Squiggy” 名人的大卫·兰德在 73 岁死亡

兰德以在电视节目上播放高飞的油腻器安德鲁 “Squiggy” Squiggman 而闻名。

【原文】

David L. Lander, the actor best known for portraying the character of ‘Squiggy’ on the popular 1970s ABC sitcom “Laverne & Shirley,” has passed away at age 73 after a long battle with multiple sclerosis.

Lander died in Los Angeles on Friday, Dec. 4, “surrounded by his wife, daughter and son-in-law,” according to an email from his wife quoted by the Associated Press: “It was very peaceful,” Kathy Lander said. “He had a tough battle with MS for 37 years and he persevered like no one I have ever seen, and it taught me a great deal about the important things of life.”

Lander partnered with actor Michael McKean to create and play the characters of “Lenny” and “Squiggy” — Andrew “Squiggy” Squiggman and Lenny Kosnowski — friends of the titular characters Laverne DeFazio (portrayed by Penny Marshall) and Shirley Feeney (portrayed by Cindy Williams), in the popular 1976-83 ABC television comedy “Laverne & Shirley”:

pic.twitter.com/G804z4F5bR

— Michael McKean (@MJMcKean) December 5, 2020

Lander is survived by his wife and a daughter, Natalie Lander.

2020年12月7日
发表者 minici
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佐治亚州民意调查工作者是否向共和党观察员隐藏了选票的 “手提箱”?

特朗普竞选活动称,这一邪恶计划于 11 月 3 日午夜左右在亚特兰大州立农场竞技场展开,并被视频捕获。

【宣称】

视频监控片段显示,2020 年 11 月 3 日,亚特兰大州立农场竞技场的民意调查工作者使用手提箱向共和党观察员隐藏选票。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

On Dec. 3, 2020, a committee of Georgia state legislators met to discuss potential changes to the state’s election system after fewer than 13,000 votes separated Democratic nominee Joe Biden and U.S. President Donald Trump in the presidential election. The group, formally called the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee, heard numerous testimonies from people alleging crimes at polling sites.

Among those testifiers were attorneys advocating on behalf of the Trump campaign, including Rudy Giuliani. They showed the committee frames of surveillance footage supposedly showing a handful of poll workers illegally counting absentee and military ballots inside a banquet room of Atlanta’s State Farm Arena on Election Day, Nov. 3, as part of a wide-ranging effort to delegitimize Biden’s win. (A Trump-requested ballot recount in Atlanta’s Fulton County concluded Dec. 4, when county elections officials certified results showing Biden the clear winner.)

The presentation by the Trump attorneys was amplified by Fox News’ Sean Hannity; The Epoch Times, a website perpetuating the Trump campaign’s baseless allegations of voter fraud by nefariously marketing itself as a news operation; The Gateway Pundit, an online hub of conspiracies, and numerous social media accounts, including Trump’s.

“Blockbuster testimony taking place right now in Georgia,” the president tweeted during the Georgia committee meeting.

“I told them not to do that,” Barron said, per the news outlet. “At about 11:15 [p.m.] they were fully scanning again, and once they were scanning, Carter Jones, the State Election Board monitor, he told me 11:42 or 11:52 [p.m.] that he arrived.”

In other words, Barron alleged that a nonpartisan, state-designated monitor was present when poll workers were scanning ballots just before and after midnight. And after that, he said, an investigator with the secretary of state’s office also monitored the ballot scanning. Barron said, per Atlanta 11Alive:

What the video shows is that they have pulled out plastic bins from underneath the desks, those are bins that they keep under their desks near the scanners. They will cut those seals that are on those, open those up and pull the ballots out.

They were still in the process of cleaning so they hadn’t sealed those ballot boxes up, so they were able to just start right back up, normal processing that occurred there.

Following the Senate committee meeting featuring Pick’s testimony about the alleged “suitcases,” Republican Georgia lawmakers announced that the state House’s Governmental Affairs Committee will hold another hearing on the state’s election system Dec. 10. “Our committee will seek any credible evidence of fraud or wrong-doing and determine what, if any, legislative action may be necessary to preserve the sanctity of the ballot box,” a statement read.

In sum, no evidence showed poll workers at the Atlanta site conspired together to hide one or more ballots from Republican observers. Additionally, elections officials said the footage did not show suitcases, but rather standard bins for transporting ballots. 

2020年12月7日
发表者 minici
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复古 Corningware 砂锅料理价值数千美元吗?

我们不是 Corningware 估价师,但我们也没有对这个估价师保持气息。

【宣称】

复古 Corningware 砂锅菜肴价值数千美元 apiece。

【结论】

大部分是假

【原文】

For some, white casserole dishes with blue cornflower and multi-colored floral designs bring to mind warm memories from the past. Corningware, based in Corning, New York, was founded in 1958, and through the decades its kitchenware products were popular wedding gifts.

In January 2020, ClickOrlando published a story headlined, “How to know if your vintage CorningWare is worth some serious money,” and the nostaglia-centric website Do You Remember also reported that “old Corningware dishes from the 1970s could be worth thousands of dollars.” Similar claims have been included in online advertising that, when clicked, lead to seemingly endless slideshows that require readers to click through sometimes more than 100 pages. The goal for these websites is to make more money on the ads displayed with the slideshow than it cost to run the ad that lured readers to the story in the first place. The tactic is referred to as “arbitrage.”

On March 13, 2019, the Australian website ThatsLife published what may have been one of the original stories that started the new surge in vintage Corningware interest. The headline read: “Check your pantry NOW! Your old Corningware dishes could be worth a fortune.” The story also said that vintage Corningware “could be worth thousands!”

Your old Corningware dishes stashed in your pantry could be worth thousands of dollars.

The 1970s-style porcelain cooking-ware has made a comeback, with the popular dishes fetching up to $10,000 on eBay.

eBay Collectors are on the hunt for ‘rare’ Corningware designs and are willing to pay mega bucks for it.

“One piece of Corningware, in a pattern not widely produced, sold on eBay recently for $US7,000 (AUD$9.8k),” says glass expert Dean Six. “It was a 1970s product that fizzled.”

“Collecting is often what you remember, which is why this is big now because baby boomers are buying back what they grew up with. Boomers are decorating with these pieces in their homes.”

Readers have sent us inquiries about Corningware value in the past, with at least one person even showing us her “4 qt dutch oven” dish to ask us how much it’s worth. Unfortunately, we’re not Corningware appraisers. However, our research found that, while some eBay listings for Corningware products have fetched more than $10,000, the vast majority of the vintage dishes likely won’t reach anywhere near that value. An eBay user without educated expertise in a specific line of products might list a product for a high amount, but that doesn’t mean the product is worth that much.

ClickOrlando reported that “the rarer the better when it comes to value, it seems,” but also that there are usually live listings on eBay featuring vintage Corningware casserole dishes being sold for less than $50:

As is the case with all collector’s items, it’s hard to know what your personal belongings could truly sell for. Despite how valuable or invaluable something might be, our stuff is really only worth what someone will pay for it at any given time.

If you go to eBay and search the word “Corningware,” you’ll find most listings range from $5 to $40, depending on the set itself, how many pieces are included and what condition they’re in.

According to an eBay search of sold listings, around 99% of Corningware casserole products went for less than $100. For example, a vintage 1959 dish with a lid went for $42, while two others without lids from 1959 went for $25 and $6. Meanwhile, a seven-piece set from the 1960s fetched $100. ClickOrlando also reported that at least one lucky shopper stocked up on vintage Corningware dishes at a thrift store:

Buyers do need to be on the lookout for scammers, however. On Oct. 22, 2020, a 19-piece set sold for $14,999. On the same day, a single dish went for $10,000. We noticed that both sellers had zero reviews, which eBay users know can be a sign of a potential scam. For the single dish that sold for $10,000, unfortunately for the buyer we found the exact same photograph on a Poshmark listing from Oct. 16, six days before the eBay listing went up, offering the dish for less than $500.

We also found several other unsold listings for Corningware products that had sellers with zero reviews, for $19,000, $21,150, and $25,000. However, all new eBay users do begin with zero reviews, so it’s undetermined if these listings are indeed scams.

Headlines that claimed a specific line of products “could be worth thousands” brought to mind our previous reporting about Disney “Black Diamond Collection” VHS tapes. “Black Diamond Collection” VHS copies of classic Disney films were actually quite common, despite eBay listings that asked, typically unsuccessfully, for thousands of dollars per movie.

The website How To Tell If published a brief guide to help owners of Corningware products assess the potential value of their kitchenware.

Vintage Corningware products might sell on eBay for a modest price, but it would be foolish to expect the earnings to fund a luxury vacation.

2020年12月7日
发表者 minici
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不,Jaleel White 的净资产没有让家人 “流泪”

这位以在 “家庭事务” 上扮演史蒂夫·厄克尔而闻名的演员是另一场死亡骗局的主题。

【宣称】

贾利尔·怀特的净资产让他的家人流泪。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

Jaleel White is most famous for his portrayal of Steve Urkel on the television sitcom “Family Matters,” which aired from 1989-1998. The loveable, nosy, and nerdy neighbor was the bane of Carl Winslow’s existence, and he helped immortalize several catchphrases, including “Did I do that?”; “I’ve fallen and I can’t get up”; and “Got any cheese?”

In October 2020, fabricated stories online began to surface the phrase: “Jaleel White’s net worth left his family in tears.” The poorly written pages falsely claimed White had a “suicide endeavor” that resulted in his “demise”:

jaleel white net worth left his family in tears

Bio And Early Life Here we have all the data about Jaleel’s suicide endeavor and passing just as misuse charge. Jaleel had an unmistakable fascination for acting from the earliest starting point of his adolescence.

[…]

Despite the fact that it is flawed, in spite of the fact that you can guarantee that Jaleel White was one of the most rich characters of the 1990s gratitude to his depiction of Steve Urkel in the American sitcom arrangement, Family Matters; after numerous years the show which finished him to spotlight came; nonetheless. He was born and brought up in Culver City in California. Besides, he is as yet getting more consideration from his fan for his suicide and demise news.

These stories were false.

We previously reported on similar false stories about the “net worth left his family in tears” ploy featuring Alex Trebek and Sean Connery, who both passed away in the latter half of 2020.

Advertisers bought ad space to push the claim that the net worths for Trebek and Connery left their families “in tears.” After readers clicked the ads, they landed on slideshows that required seemingly endless clicks across sometimes more than 100 pages just to finish the stories. By the end of the slideshows, there was no mention of anyone’s net worth leaving a family “in tears.” This is known as advertising “arbitrage,” where the idea is to make more money on the advertisements displayed during the slideshow than it cost to run the original ad that lured readers to the story in the first place. The business and technology blog Margins referred to “arbitrage” as “the mythical free lunch that economics tells us does not exist.”

In the case of the pages that falsely claimed “Jaleel White’s net worth left his family in tears,” it was unclear if such ads were running yet. But bits and pieces of the story appeared to possibly come from a junk news page published in 2019.

White has been the subject of a previous suicide death hoax as far back as 2006.

White had also been the subject of other misleading stories and videos, including one YouTube video titled: “The Real Reason We Don’t Hear About Jaleel White Anymore.”

In reality, White is on Twitter and Instagram, where he’s recently been promoting his debut as a podcast host. Also, according to his IMDb page he was cast in a handful of television and film roles in the last several years, including popular TV series such as “DuckTales,” “Raven’s Home,” and “Fresh Off the Boat.”

2020年12月6日
发表者 minici
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“辉瑞研究负责人” 是否说 COVID-19 疫苗 “女性绝育”?

两名医生提高疫苗的幽灵导致绝育手术,都传播了大流行性的错误信息。

【宣称】

“辉瑞研究负责人” 说,由制药公司开发的 COVID-19 疫苗 “是女性绝育手术”。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

As governments fight the COVID-19 pandemic, Snopes is fighting an “infodemic” of rumors and misinformation, and you can help. Read our coronavirus fact checks. Submit any questionable rumors and “advice” you encounter. Become a Founding Member to help us hire more fact-checkers. And, please, follow the CDC or WHO for guidance on protecting your community from the disease.

In early December 2020, social media users shared rumors that the “head of Pfizer research” had warned that the drug company’s new COVID-19 vaccine would cause sterilization in women.

The story was sourced from a blog called Health and Money News and referenced statements made by Michael Yeadon, who is not the head of Pfizer research. Yeadon did work for Pfizer but left the company in 2011, according to his biographical information in the blog “Lockdown Sceptics,” to which Yeadon has contributed. His title at Pfizer was vice president and chief scientist for allergy and respiratory.

Yeadon and German physician Wolfgang Wodarg sent a letter to the European Medicines Agency, calling on EMA to halt clinical trials of Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine in the European Union. In the letter, Wodarg and Yeadon stated that the Pfizer vaccine blocks a protein that is key in the formation of the placenta in mammals, and they claimed that it’s possible women who receive the vaccine could become infertile. However, they did not state as fact that the vaccine causes sterility, as the Health and Money News headline suggests.

Pfizer announced on Dec. 2, 2020, that it obtained permission from public health officials in the U.K. to begin administering the vaccine. As The Associated Press reported, “Britain’s Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency recommended the vaccine after clinical trials involving tens of thousands of volunteers showed it was 95% effective and turned up no serious side effects. The vaccine is still considered experimental while final testing is done.”

We reached out to Pfizer for comment but didn’t receive a response in time for publication, although there was no mention of risk of sterility in Pfizer’s publicly available study. In a Nov. 20, 2020, press release Pfizer said no significant safety concerns have been observed during vaccine studies.

Both Wodarg and Yeadon have spread COVID-19 misinformation in the past. Yeadon falsely claimed in an October 2020 blog post that the “pandemic is effectively over.” Wodarg falsely claimed in a March 2020 YouTube video that the virus was no more harmful than the seasonal flu.

The COVID-19 disease is deadlier than the flu, and the pandemic is not over. The virus has resurged in Europe and the United States in the fall of 2020. As of this writing it has killed more than 1.5 million people globally and almost 280,000 Americans have died.

2020年12月6日
发表者 minici
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Facebook “Censor” 是圣诞老人在宝贝耶稣面前跪下的形象吗?

社交媒体平台简要报道了多年来一直在线的宗教形象。

【宣称】

Facebook “审查” 了圣诞老人在宝贝耶稣面前跪下的图像。

【结论】

已过时

【原文】

On 5 December 2018, the pro-life Christian web site LifeSite reported that social media giant Facebook had “censored” an image of Santa Claus kneeling reverently before the baby Jesus because the illustration was deemed ‘violent content'”:

Facebook has covered over a posting of a picture of Santa Claus kneeling before the Baby Jesus, warning viewers that the photo “may show violent or graphic content.”

A second warning beneath the obscured image of Santa on bended knee, reverentially adoring the Christ Child states, “This photo was automatically covered so you can decide if you want to see it.

Users can click on a button to uncover the photo.

The following day, LifeSite reported that Facebook had since removed the covering message that warned users about “violent or graphic content.”

Asserting that the image was “censored” was quite an exaggeration (aside from the fact that Facebook is not a government entity), given that it was neither deleted nor restricted in a way such that ordinary Facebook users could no longer view it. It was simply covered with a warning message that a user had to click on to see the underlying picture:

And LifeSite’s own story noted, that particular illustration had already been present on Facebook for over three years:

The image in question — of the Savior of the World as an infant and a popularized version of a saint — was originally posted on December 1, 2015, with [an] accompanying poem explaining the touching illustration …

In other words, as of this writing the image had been readily viewable Facebook for three years, with only a very brief interruption to that status on the platform.

It’s exceedingly improbable that anyone truly thought the illustration was “violent or graphic” or that Facebook deliberately chose to place a warning message on it. As the company confirmed to us, it was “automated systems that mistakenly applied a warning screen to this image,” a process that can be triggered by users (either mistakenly or prankishly) flagging an image as offensive. Facebook told us that the “warning screen was removed as soon as we identified the mistake.”

In early December 2020, readers directed our attention to a post containing the image, which was made in 2015. The image was covered with a message that it contains “sensitive content,” and viewers must click on it to see the image. The warning label was removed, however, after we contacted Facebook asking why it was there. A Facebook spokeswoman confirmed in an email to Snopes that the label applied to the image was an error.

2020年12月6日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

TikTok 视频是否揭示了 Chick-Fil-A 的掘金的食谱过程?

据称显示了部分鸡块食谱的原始病毒式 TikTok 视频消失了,但被其他人重新上传。

【宣称】

Chick-Fil-A 录制的 TikTok 视频显示了创建快餐店鸡块的过程。

【结论】


【原文】

On Nov. 24, 2020, TikTok user @dxxdxx7 published a video that appeared to show the process, and partially the recipe, for preparing Chick-fil-A’s chicken nuggets. The video appeared to have been deleted on an unknown date, but was uploaded again by the TikTok user @foodies:

@foodies

AT LEAST THE MEAT IS ✨REAL✨ #foodies (via @dxxdxx7 )

♬ Spongebob – Dante9k

It was also re-uploaded to YouTube.

It is true that the video revealed the process for making Chick-fil-A’s chicken nuggets. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported that the “viral TikTok video shows how Chick-fil-A nuggets are made.” Chick-fil-A is based in Atlanta, Georgia.

The AJC wrote: “Cracking the code to the magic behind chicken nuggets has been a mystery for years. A Chick-fil-A employee recently blew the minds of TikTok users when the process of making the restaurant’s tasty nuggets was revealed.”

The TikTok video showed that Chick-fil-A’s nuggets recipe begins with pieces of raw chicken that are washed in milk, mixed in seasoning, sifted, and poured into oil in a Chick-fil-A-branded fryer for a number of minutes.

According to Outsider.com, the video was viewed more than 13 million times. Yahoo Life also reported that commenters seemed “confused that there was no mention of pickle juice,” a supposed “secret ingredient,” according to Taste of Home.

While the process for creating one of Chick-fil-A’s most-ordered food items might have been revealed, don’t drive to pick up a box of chicken nuggets on a Sunday. The fast food restaurant chain is famously closed that day, despite a past rumor that claimed the company was reversing this policy. Chick-fil-A’s company blog said that being closed on Sundays dated back to founder S. Truett Cathy’s original restaurant, The Dwarf Grill, which was closed on Sundays “because the diner was open 24 hours a day, and he wanted to give his team a day off to rest and to worship if they choose.”

2020年12月5日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

谷歌地图是否在南极洲发现了 “400 英尺冰船”?

阴谋论家声称,谷歌地图上看到的 “冰船” 与纳粹有关,或者在发生大规模灾难时正在为富人和强者建造地下。

【宣称】

谷歌地图上的卫星图像中发现了一艘 “400 英尺的冰船”。

【结论】

未经证实

【原文】

On Aug. 7, 2020, YouTube user MrMBB333 published a video that appeared to show a ship in ice that measured over 400 feet (122 meters) in length. The images were captured from Google Earth. The moment with the “ice ship” begin at the 5:05 mark:

This was sent in by D. Whitaker, this area here. And he noticed this iceberg here, if we go to the 3D format, you look down on it. It looks like the outline of a ship, and this one here measures over 400 feet long. 428 feet (130 meters) to be exact. Whatever that is that looks like a ship. The ice ship, whatever you want to call it, that’s what it looks like. A 400-foot yacht just sitting there off the coast of Antarctica, right in this area here just beneath New Zealand and Antarctica, right in that area there about a hundred miles offshore.

This discovery was undoctored. The “ice ship” can be viewed on Google Maps or Google Earth using its satellite view by clicking this link, or by entering these coordinates into Google Maps: 66°54’18″S 163°13’37″E.

Shadows around the shape measured quite long, meaning that it was well above the surface of the rest of the ice. If it was a ship, it was listing on its side. In Google Earth, one shadow stretched 90 feet (27 meters) long:

While the video was undoctored, and it certainly looked like the outline of a large ship, we are unable to definitively confirm that it is, indeed, a ship. The “ice ship” story from the video was mostly picked up by tabloids.

The Sun, Mirror Online, and others all detailed conspiracy theories from viewers who commented under the YouTube video. Commenters said that it might have something to do with World War II, Adolf Hitler, aliens, or Nazis. At least one person said it could be a ship that’s being built underground for the rich and powerful, for when the Canary Islands gets hit with a massive natural disaster that’s purportedly going to take out the east coast of the United States. All of these theories are baseless and unconfirmed.

Even so, ships have gone down in Antarctica in the 21st century. For example, the Canadian cruise ship named MS Explorer sank in 2007. However, its last known location was more than 3,000 miles (8,000 kilometers) from the “ice ship.” The purportedly “rat-infested” Lyubov Orlova, a ship that in 2013 was abandoned and adrift in the middle of the ocean, was only 295 feet (90 meters) long, not nearly as long as the “ice ship” shape. The “cannibal rats” aspect of the ship’s story didn’t hold much water.

Photographer Robin Smith captured this image of the Lyubov Orlova around 2012, before it likely sank in early 2013:

Robin Smith published this photograph on Getty Images with a date of Feb. 23, 2012.

Another famous ship, although not tied to Antarctica, was the century-old SS Cotopaxi. It was finally positively identified in early 2020 after being discovered years earlier. The SS Cotopaxi is not the “ice ship” seen on Google Maps.

“Ice ship” or not, the only way to definitively confirm what lies at these Antarctic coordinates is for an expedition to set sail. If that ever happens, we’ll be here awaiting the big news.

2020年12月5日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

Moira Rose 来自 “Schitt 的 Creek” 和凯文的妈妈是由同一个女演员玩的吗?

凯瑟琳·奥哈拉在她的职业生涯中担任过几个难忘的角色。

【宣称】

在 “Schitt’s Creek” 节目中扮演了名为 Moira Rose 的角色的女演员是在 “独自家” 中扮演凯文妈妈的同一个女演员。

【结论】


【原文】

For the last few years, modern television audiences have come to know actress Catherine O’Hara for her Emmy-winning portrayal of eccentric matriarch Moira Rose on the CBC show “Schitt’s Creek.” So when the holiday season rolled around in 2020 and people started re-watching classic holiday movies, some viewers were a bit shocked to find out that O’Hara had also played Kevin’s mom, Kate McCallister, in “Home Alone.”

so you’re telling me that Moira Rose is also: pic.twitter.com/6zlRhholmM

— morgan faulkner (@morgfaulkner) November 10, 2020

IMDB also produced a video that looked back at O’Hara’s memorable career. That video, entitled “No Small Parts,” traced O’Hara’s career from the early ’70s, when she was a member of the The Second City improvisational comedy troupe in Toronto, Canada, to roles in movies like “Beetlejuice” and “Home Alone.”

2020年12月5日
发表者 minici
暂无评论

不,肖恩·康纳利的净资产没有让家庭 “流泪”

我们最近看到了关于名人在 “危险” 游戏节目主持人亚历克斯·特雷贝克上使用的名人净资产的误导性广告网络 “套利” 阴谋。

【宣称】

肖恩·康纳利的净资产使他的家人流泪。

【结论】

虚假

【原文】

Known as a famous Hollywood actor and one of the original men to portray the iconic character James Bond, Sean Connery died on Oct. 31, 2020. According to TMZ, he died at 1:30 a.m. “at his home in the Bahamas.”

Sean Connery died in his sleep from pneumonia, heart failure and old age … according to his death certificate.

TMZ obtained Connery’s death cert and it shows he died from respiratory failure as a result of pneumonia, old age and atrial fibrillation … an irregular heart rate that can increase the risk of strokes, heart failure and other heart-related complications.

Entertainment Tonight made contact with the family, reporting that “Connery’s wife, Micheline Roquebrune, and his two sons, Jason and Stephane, told ET that he died peacefully in his sleep, surrounded by family.”

Following his death, at least one advertiser bought ad space on the social media platform Reddit, or on a mobile app that displays Reddit content. The ad read: “sean connery’s Net Worth Left His Family In Tears.” Connery’s name was lowercase, likely because the “Net Worth Left His Family In Tears” part is a template.

It’s not true. It’s fabricated and completely baseless. Sean Connery’s family was not left “in tears” because of his net worth. We previously reported on the “net worth left his family in tears” advertising ploy with “Jeopardy” host Alex Trebek. The late Kenny Rogers also appeared to be a victim of the ploy.

The advertisement in question appeared to lead to Life Exact, a viral content website. It was first documented by Reddit user JezCon. It’s unclear if the advertisement is still active on the website. We were unable to locate the ad, but it likely lead to a slideshow with multiple pages, where the idea was to make more money on the advertisements displayed during the slideshow than it cost to run the original ad alongside Reddit content. This is known as advertising “arbitrage.”

Business and technology blog Margins is managed by Ranjan Roy and Can Duruk, and Roy defined “arbitrage” as “leveraging an inefficient set of systems to make a riskless profit, usually by buying and selling the same asset.” He also called it “the mythical free lunch that economics tells us does not exist.”